BIBLIOGRAPHY: HANDLING COMPRESSED GASES 

Compiled By Larry "Harris" Taylor, Ph.D.

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-----, COMPRESSED MEDICAL GASES GUIDELINE, U.S. Public Health Service, Food & Drug Administration, Rockville, MD. 1989, 24 pages. 

-----, GUIDE TO SAFE HANDLING OF COMPRESSED GASES, Matheson Gas Products, Secaucus, NJ. 1983, 322 pages. 

-----, "Gases, Liquids, & Humidity," in Shaheen, E. BASIC PRACTICE OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, International Institute Of Technology, Joplin, MO. 1983, p. 79-146. 

-----, "Safe Handling Of Compressed Gases In Cylinders," in GUIDE FOR SAFETY IN THE CHEMICAL LABORATORY, Manufacturing Chemists Assoc. New York, NY. 1972, p. 164-186. 

-----, "Compressed Gas Containers," in Dorsch, J. & S. UNDERSTANDING ANESTHESIA EQUIPMENT, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD. 1984, p. 1-37. 

ANDI, ANDI CERTIFIED GAS BLENDER, ANDI, Freeport, NY, 1993, 44 pages.   

ANDI, Oxygen Handling & Gas Blending Procedures, ANDI, Freeport, NY. 2000, 79 pages.

ANDI, SERVICE TECHNICIAN, ANDI, Freeport, NY. 1993, 63 pages. 

Bjorkman, B. RECREATIONAL NITROX GAS BLENDING MANUAL, Best, Flagstaff, AZ. 2000, 62 pages. 

Blakey, P. "Liguefied Gases," in McKeetts, J. & Cunningham, W. (Ed.), ENCYCLOPEDIA OF CHEMICAL PROCESSING AND DESIGN, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY. 1990, p. 166-187. 

Blakey, P. & Mostello, R. L. "Nitrogen, Oxygen, & Argon Production From Air," in McKeetts, J. & Cunningham, W. (Ed.), ENCYCLOPEDIA OF CHEMICAL PROCESSING AND DESIGN, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY. 1990, p. 205-235. 

Braker, W. & Mossman, A. MATHESON GAS DATA BOOK, Matheson Gas Products, Secaucus, NJ. 1971, 574 pages. 

Briggs, T. & Howard, A. "COMPRESSIBILITY DATA FOR HELIUM, NITROGEN, AND HELIUM_NITROGEN MIXTURES AT 0, 25 and 50 oC AND AT PRESSURES TO 1000 ATMOSPHERES, US BUREAU OF MINES, Amarillo, TX.1972, 194 pages. 

Carlucci, P. Pletzke, T. Peuglar, R. GAS MIXTURES: FACTS & FABLES, Matheson Gas Products, Secaucus, NJ.  1991, 24 pages. 

Compressed Gas Association, HANDLING OF COMPRESSED GASES, Compressed Gas Association, Arlington, VA, 1990, 650 pages. 

Cook, G. ARGON, HELIUM AND THE RARE GASES, Interscience, New York, NY. 1961, 427 pages. 

Crocker, B. "Gas Cleaning," in KIRK-OTHMER (3 rd) ENCYCLOPEDIA OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY. 1981, p. 621-629. 

Degn, H. & Lundsgaard, J. "Dynamic Gas Mixing Techniques," J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods, 3(1980), 233-242. 

Dinapoli, R. "Nitrogen, Oxygen & Argon (Ultrpure), in McKeetts, J. & Cunningham, W. (Ed.), ENCYCLOPEDIA OF CHEMICAL PROCESSING AND DESIGN, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY. 1990, p.236- 

Diserns, P. COMPRESSIBILITY CHARTS AND THEIR APPLICATION TO PROBLEMS INVOLVING PRESSURE-VOLUME-ENERGY RELATION FOR REAL GASES, Worthington Pump and Machinery Corporation, Harrison, NJ. 1949, 17 pages. 

Fastovskii, V. INERT GASES, Israel Program For Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, Israel, 1967, 253 pages. 

Harlow, V. OXYGEN HACKERíS COMPANION, Airspeed Press, Warner, NH, 1997, 73 pages.   

High, B. GUIDE FOR FILL STATION OPERATIONS, PSI, Seattle, WA. 2001, 36 pages.

Hill, L. Add a Helium Analyzer To Your Fill Station, Immersed, Summer, 2001, 60-61. 

Himmelblau, D. Gases, Vapors, Liquids And Solids, in BASIC PRINCIPLES IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, Prentice Hall, New York, NY. 1982, p. 201-312. 

Leighton, S. & Kent, K. "Precision Gas Mixing Technique For Medical Applications," J. Appl. Phys. 34,(1974), 502-503. 

McBride, W. HIGH PRESSURE BREATHING AIR HANDBOOK, Sub-Aquatics, 1996, 212 pages. 

McBride, W. THE PRODUCTION, PROCESSING AND STORAGE OF HIGH PRESSURE BREATHING AIR, Breathing Air Systems, Reyoldsberg, OH. 1980, 23 pages. 

Mann, D. THE THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF HELIUM FROM 3 To 300 K BETWEEN 0.5 AND 100 ATMOSPHERES, National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, CO. 1962, 89 pages. 

Nelson, G. CONTROLLED TEST ATMOSPHERES, Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, MI. 1971, 247 pages. 

Nelson, G. GAS MIXTURES: PREPARATION AND CONTROL, Lewis Publishers, Boca Rotan, FL. 1992, 294 pages. 

Palayiwa, E. et. al. "A Microprocessor-Controlled Gas Mixing Device," Br. J. Anaesth.(1986), 58, 1041-1047. 

Raftis, N. THE TECHNICAL GUIDE TO GAS BLENDING, Best Publishing, Flagstaff, AZ. 2000, 160 pages.  

Rossier, R. Measuring Up: Exploring The Limits Of Oxygen Analyzer Technology, Alert Diver, Aug. 2001, 10-14.

Rutkowski, D. BLENDING AND PARTIAL PRESSURE METHODS OF MIXING NITROX, Hyperbarics, International, Key Largo, Fl. 1993, 102 pages. 

Shreeves, K. The Art Of Gas Blending, Skin Diver, April, 1999, 26-27. 

Snider, E. (Ed.) MATERIAL AND ENERGY BALANCE: V1: INTRODUCTION AND COMPUTATIONS FOR GASES, 1980, 54 pages; V4: IDEAL GAS LAW, ENTHALPY, HEAT CAPACITY, HEAT OF SOLUTION, & MIXING, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, New York, NY. 1984, 74 pages. 

Talbot, E. COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEMS: A GUIDEBOOK ON ENERGY AND COST SAVINGS, Fairmont Press, Inc. Atlanta, GA. 1986, 186 pages. 

Taylor, L. "Real Differences." IANTD Journal, 54-2,(May-July), p. 26. 

Thalken, F. "Production, Storage & Delivery Of Medical Gases," in EAGAN'S FUNDAMENTALS OF RESPIRATORY CARE, C.V. Mosby, St. Louis, MO. 1990, p. 584-605. 

Vanchuk, J. HOW TO MAKE GOOD RESPIRATORY AIR CONSISTENTLY AND ECONOMICALLY, Robbins Aviation, Inc. Vernon, CA. 1978, 11 pages. 

Werner, R. "Some Gas-Mixing Hazards," Part 1: Underwater Speleology, Mar/Apr. 1993, p. 10-11. Part 2: May/June, 1993, p. 4-5. 

ASME Publications 

PV-1: Pressure Vessels For Human Occupancy 

ASTM Publications 

G63-92: Standard Guide For Evaluating Non-Metallic Materials For Oxygen Service, 26 pages. 

G88-90: Standard Guide For Designing Systems For Oxygen Service, 4 pages. 

G93-88: Standard Practice For Cleaning Methods For Material And Equipment Used In Oxygen-Enriched Environments, 13 pages. 

G94-90: Standard Guide For Evaluating Metals For Oxygen Service, 21 pages. 

Compressed Gas Association (CGA) Booklets:

 C-1: Methods for Hydrostatic Testing of Compressed Gas Cylinders, 1975,  20 pages. 

C-5: Cylinder Service Life - Seamless, Steel, High Pressure Cylinders, 1991, 12 pages. 

C-6: Standards for Visual Inspection of Steel Compressed Gas Cylinders, 1984, 16 pages. 

C-6.1 Standards for Visual Inspection of High Pressure Aluminum Compressed Gas Cylinders, 1984, 8 pages. 

C-9: Standard Color Marking Of Compressed Gas Cylinders, 1988, 8 pages. 

C-10: Recommended Procedures For Chances Of Gas Service For Compressed Gas Service For Compressed Gas Cylinders, 19 pages. 

G-4: Oxygen, 1987, 16 pages. 

G-4.1: Cleaning Equipment for Oxygen Service, 1985, 16 pages. 

G-4.3: Commodity Specification for Oxygen, 1988, 12 pages. 

G-4.4 Industrial Practices For Gaseous Oxygen Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems, 1981, 1980. 

G-4.5: Commodity Specification For Oxygen Produced By Chemical Reaction,   4 pages. 

G-4.6: Oxygen Compressor Installation Guide, 1992, 24 pages. 

G-7: Compressed Air for Human Respiration, 1990, 12 pages. 

G-7.1: Commodity Specification For Air, 1989, 11 pages. 

G-9.1: Commodity Specifications For Helium, 1986, 12 pages. 

G-10.1: Commodity Specifications For Nitrogen, 1991, 12 pages. 

G-11.1 Commodity Specifications For Argon, 1987, 12 pages. 

P-2.5: Trans-filling of High Pressure Gaseous Oxygen to be Used for Respiration, 1987, 12 pages. 

P-5: Suggestions For The Care of High Pressure Air Cylinders for Underwater Breathing, 1987, 8 pages. 

P-9: The Inert Gases: Argon, Nitrogen, & Helium, 1992, 16 pages. 

P-14: Accident Prevention In Oxygen-Rich And Oxygen-Deficient Atmospheres, 11 pages. 

P-15: Filling Of Industrial And Medical Nonflammable Compressed Gas Cylinders, 1985, 16 pages. 

SB-7: Rupture of Oxygen Cylinders in the Diving Industry, 1980, 2 pages. 

DCIEM Publications

Tech Memo: BIO 92-05: Oxygen Cleaning Procedures And Prototype Equipment 

Annex A: Hyperbaric & Diver's Breathing Gas Piping and Distribution Systems 

Annex B; Oxygen Cleaning Procedure For DRF 

Annex C: S.O.P. For DCIEM Freon Flushing Unit 

Annex D: S.O.P. For DCIEM Hot Air Purging Unit 

Annex E: S.O.P. For DCIEM Freon Reclaimer 

D-87-003-000: Purity Of Compressed Breathing Air And Gases For Divers 

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Publications 

43C: Storage Of Gaseous Oxidizing Materials, 7 pages. 

50: Bulk Oxygen Systems At Consumer Sites, 11 pages. 

53M: Fire Hazards In Oxygen-Enriched Atmospheres, 42 pages. 

56F: Nonflammable Medical Gas Systems, 57 pages. 

69: Explosion Prevention Systems, 29 pages. 

-----, "Oxygen-Enriched Atmospheres," Chapter 6 in NFPA Fire Protection Handbook, p. 5-41 - 5-48. 

-----, "Medical Gases," Chapter 7 in NFPA Fire Protection Handbook, p. 5-49 - 5-57.  

Additional References On O2 Safety 

Allen, T. et. al. "Space Cabin And Suit Pressures For Avoidance Of Decompression Sickness and Alleviation Of Fire Hazard," J. Appl. Phys. 27(1), July, 1969, p. 13-17. 

Bancroft, L. et. al. " Hazards Of Hospital Bulk Oxygen Delivery Systems," Anesthesiology, 52, 1980, p. 504-510. 

Barthelemy, H. & Vagnard, G. "Ignition Of PTFE-Lined Hoses In High Pressure Oxygen Systems: Test Results And Considerations For Safe Design And Use," ASTM STP 986, 1988, p. 289-303.   

Bjorkman, B. Oxygen Clean Is A Myth, Advanced Diver, Issue 10, 30-31.

Bond, A. et al. DESIGN GUIDE FOR HIGH PRESSURE OXYGEN SYSTEMS, NASA, Washington, D.C. 1983, 85 pages.   

Boyd, D. & Kent, G. Converting Dive Tanks For Oxygen Service With GMC Oxy-Safe Products, GMC Tech Support Bulletin, 10 pages.

Burnett.R. & Cole, J. "Handling Of Oxygen In Research Experiments," (1985), J. Chem. Ed. 62 (5), p. A 157-158. 

Butler, G. et. al. "Oxygen Safety In The Production Of Enriched Air Nitrox Breathing Systems,' in Cahoon, L.(Ed.) DIVING FOR SCIENCE 1992, AAUS, Costa Mesa, CA. 1992, p. 39-50. 

Cronk, J. "Taming Oxygen Hazards: Awareness Must Come First,: ASTM Stand. News, Sep. 1983, p. 33-34. 

Currie, J. Irani, R. & Sanders, J. "The Ignition Behavior Of Silicon Greases In Oxygen Atmospheres," in Stoltzfus, J. et. al. (Ed.), ASTM STP 1040, 1989, p. 125-141. 

Denison, D. et. al. "Fire And Hyperbaric Chambers," Lancet, Dec. 24, 1966, p. 1404-1405. 

Dicker, D. & Wharton, R. "A Review Of Incidents Involving The Use Of High Pressure Oxygen From 1982-1985 In Great Britain," in Schroll, D. (Ed.) ASTM STP 986, 1988, p. 318-327. 

Dieguez, J. et. al.  "Ignition Testing Of Hollow Vessels Pressurized With Gaseous Oxygen," ASTM 986, 1988, p. 368-388. 

Fine, R. ABSTRACT FOR US NAVY CLEANING PROCEDURES FOR DIVING GAS SYSTEMS, NEDU, Panama City, FL. 1991, 30 pages.   

Francis, J. Fireball In Your Face? Scuba Diving, Jan/Feb 2002, 47-48.

Gilbertson, J. & Lowrie, R. "Threshold Sensitivities Of Tests To Detect Oil Film Contamination In Oxygen Equipment," in Benning, M. (Ed.) ASTM STP 910, 1986, p. 204-211. 

Gusky, F. "Oxygen Regulator Myths," in Schroll, D. (Ed.) ASTM STP 986, 1987, p. 359-367. 

Hirsch, D. Bunker, R. & Janoff, D. "Effects Of Oxygen Concentration, Diluents, and Pressure On Ignition And Flame-Spread Rates Of Non-metals: A Review Paper," in Stoltzfus, J. et al (Ed.) ASTM STP 1111, 1991, p. 179-190. 

Irani, R. et. al. "Dimensional Changes In Elastomers Under High Pressure Oxygen," ASTM STP 986, 1988, p. 346-358. 

Larrymore, M. "Part 1: Fire Hazards In Oxygen Systems Covered By ASTM," Pressure, July/Aug. 1992, p. 7-8; Part2: Applying ASTM Standard G88: Designing Systems For Oxygen Service, Nov/Dec. 1992, p.5. 

Lowrie, R. "Materials For Oxygen Service," Chem. Eng. Apr. 1987, p. 75-80. 

Lowrie, R. "Oxygen Service, Materials For," in McKeetts, J. & Cunningham, W. (Ed.), ENCYCLOPEDIA OF CHEMICAL PROCESSING AND DESIGN, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY. 1990, p.75-83. 

NASA, Document #TR-900-001, NASA Test Report On Scuba Cylinders, Nitrox Diver, 98-3, 26-29. 

Pedley, M. et. al. "Ignition Of Contaminants By Impact Of High Pressure Oxygen," ASTM STP 986, 1987, p. 305-317. 

Purser, P. "Ignition By Electrostatic Sparks In Hyperbaric Oxygen," Lancet, Dec. 24, 1966, p. 1405-1406. 

Scholl, D. "Cleaning Methods & Procedures For Military Oxygen Equipment: Investigation Results," in Benning, M. (Ed.) ASTM STP 910, 1986, p. 180-203. 

Stradling, J. Pippen, D. & Frye, G. "Techniques Employed By The NASA White Sands Test Facility To Ensure Oxygen System Component Safety," in Werley, B. (Ed.) ASTM STP 812, 1983, p. 97-107. 

Sullivan, G. "EVALUATION OF RIX INDUSTRIES OXYGEN COMPRESSOR MODEL 4N3BG-2.2," NEDU, Panama City, FL. 24 pages. 

Taylor, L. "Cleaning For Oxygen Service: Some Harsh Chemical Realities," IANTD Journal, 94-1 (Feb/Apr, 1994), p. 8-10. 

Turner, K. "Oxygen Safety," Professional Safety," January,1987, p. 13-16. 

Werley, B. "Oil Film Hazards In Oxygen Systems," in Werley, B. (ED.) ASTM STP 812, 1983, p. 108-125. 

Werley, B. "An Oxygen Index Update," ASTM STP 986, 1989, p. 248-261. 

Wilk, I. "Dangers Due To Increased Flammability of Materials In Oxygen-Enriched Atmospheres," in Steere, N. (Ed.) SAFETY IN THE CHEMICAL LABORATORY (Chem. Ed) Volume Two, p. 49-50. 

Wolf, G. & Simpson, J. "Oxidant O2 And Oxidant N2O Indices Of Flammability And Their Additive Effect," ASTM STP 986, 1988, p. 430-476.  

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