Authenticated encryption is a form of symmetric encryption that, in addition to providing confidentiality for the plaintext that is encrypted, provides a way to check its integrity and authenticity.
This category includes block ciphers and stream ciphers that perform symmetric encryption.
A message authentication code, or MAC, is a keyed function that can be used to ensure the authenticity and integrity of data. MACs use symmetric keys.
Cryptographic hashes are unkeyed functions that are used in several different ways, such as digital signatures and message authentication. The security goal of a cryptographic hash depends on the way in which it is used.
A key derivation function (KDF) is used to compute one or more keys from another key. In some cases the input key must be uniformly random; in other cases, it merely must be unpredictable.
This category contains asymmetric key protocols that can be used to establish shared secrets.
Asymmetric encryption and asymmetric authentication are covered in this category.
The protocols in this category can be used to establish a strong shared secret, using only a weak password for authentication, and they resist offline dictionary attacks.
A cryptographic programming interface defines how cryptographic algorithms can be used. The security and efficiency of an implementation can depend on the details of its interface. Several different interfaces have been defined for use in different domains.
The PKCS documents are specifications that were produced by RSA Laboratories; some (but not all) of the documents have been published as Informational RFCs. These specifications have become part of many formal standards, including PKIX, S/MIME, TLS, ANSI X9 and IEEE P1363.
This category touches on essentials of cryptography other than the basic algorithms.
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