Mac-IBM-Compare Version 2.0.6

{Dec 1, 1995}
From Bruce Grubb (

Changes: Mac info updated.

Note: for proper reading off line this document should be in a monospaced font such as Monaco 9pt or Courier 10pt.

The reason for this general data sheet is to consolidate and condense the information out there, so that people in both camps can be clear and accurate about what they are saying about their machines.
Since computer technology is always changing there are always going to be points in which the sheet will be lacking or incorrect on information. So, please just don't say the sheet is incomplete or incorrect but also give me clear and concise information to make the needed corrections. To keep this data sheet accurate please provide article citations,if possible, for the information provided or corrected and keep opinions to a minimum. As this is a general data sheet, keep the info provided short and simple.
{For example, if you want more details on PC hardware the FAQ is a much better source than this sheet is.}

Please note that all magazine dates are in mm/dd/yy formats.
Finally, keep the information relevant to the section corrected.
Thank you.


  • CPUs
  • Hardware
  • PowerPC machines
  • Monitor support
  • Expansion
  • Mac and IBM
  • Mac
  • IBM
  • Operating systems
  • PowerPC OSes
  • Mac OSes
  • IBM OSes
  • Networking & Printing
  • The CPUs

    Note: I am only showing Motorola & Intel CPUs used in Macs and most IBM/PC clone machines. Years indicate use of CPU chip in new machines.
    Cache is "where data can be stored to avoid having to read the data from a slower device such as a disk" (Dictionary of Computer Terms:61-DTC). Both IBM and Mac use caches external to CPUs which increase the speed of the CPU but are not a part of it. Since there are many different external caches, each having a different effect on CPU performance, with some built-in {present Macs}, other optional but installed {IBM}, and are machine, seller or expansion dependent, I have decided to leave them out of the list.

    Note:  ALU is industry's de-facto standard for CPU bit classification.
    IBM     ALU  Registers    External     CPU     Features/
    CPU                     data  address cache    Notes
    8088(6) 16      16     8 (16)   20    none     {1981-9} {197?-89}
    80186   16      16       16     20    none     {198?-9?} 8088(6) segmenting
    80286   16      16       16     24    none     segmenting + Protected Mode*
    386sx   32      32       16     24    none     80386*
    80386   32      32       32     32    none     MMU & 32-bit Protected Mode 
    486sx   32      32       32     32   one 8K    80486 w/o FPU
    80486   32      32       32     32   one 8K    new CPU core {~386 + FPU}
    486dx2  32      32       32     32   one 8K    doubled internal clock rate**
    486dx3  32      32       32     32   one 16K   80486 w/o FPU; IBM chip
     [Blue Lightning]                              between 486dx2 and Pentium 5 
                                                   lines in speed (BYTE 04/94:22)
    DX4     32      32       32     32   one 16K   80486; Intel's version of the
    Pentium 32      32       64     32   8K code,  2 instructions/cycle max
     [P5]                                8K data,  2-issue superscalar, 386 
    [P54c]                               Branch    Write-Back, 64-bit FPU,
                                         target    pipelining;
                                                   120 MHz-SPECint92: 133.7
                                                   SPECfp92: 99.5
                                                   133 MHz-SPECint92: 147.5
                                                   SPECfp92: 109.6***
    P6      32      32       64     32   8K code   CRISC; 133 MHz-SPECint92: 200
                                         8K data   {Estimated}
                                        256K SRAM 
    P7                                             RISC or VLIW with a hardware
                                                   x86 code translator,
    386sl: low power (3.3V) 386sx with built-in power management. Laptop use.
    386slc: IBM 5V 386sx with a 16k on-chip cache added (John H. Kim).  As far as
     John H. Kim knows it is only used on IBM models.
    486slc: Neither of two chips that have this name have a FPU.  Cyrix: basically
     486sx in 386sx socket with 1k cache and improved integer math speed.  IBM: 
     equivalent to 486sx with a 16k on-chip cache.
    486slcs: IBM chip equivalent to 486dx2 - FPU with a 16-bit external data path
     and 16k on-chip cache.
    486dlc2: IBM chip equivalent to 486dx2 - FPU and with 16k on-chip cache.
    P24T{Pentium}:  64 bit internally, 32 bit for system I/O.
    Pentium/150 .4 micron, mid-1995 (PC Week 05/30/94)
    *16 MB maximum RAM
    ** ex. for 486dx2/50, chip runs 50 MHz, rest of machine runs at 25 MHz.
     The chips are used in Apple's DOS compatible card for some Macs.
     SPECmarks are with 512 KB L2 cache; 1 MB L2 cache SPECmarks are about 5%
     higher.  All Pentiums made before Dec 94 have a bug in the FPU; there was an
     offer for replacement chips and a software solution that turns off the FPU. 
     386 and early 486 code can run slower on a Pentium then expected; 16-bit
     code runs slow on P6s, 32-bit code runs at expected speeds.
    **** Computergram International, 06/02/94; BYTE 4/95:54.  VLIW (Very Long
     Instruction Word) is supposed to be faster and cheaper than RISC but it has
     a major problem in that VLIW binary code is _so_ CPU specific as to be
     TOTALLY incompatible with _any_ future VLIW CPUs {it would be as if 386 code
     would not run on 486 and 486 code would not run on a Pentium}
     (InfoWorld, 01/17/94 v16 n3 p29(2); Microprocessor Report, 02/14/94 v8 n2
     p18(4); BYTE 4/95:54)
    Mac     ALU  Registers  External bus   CPU     Features/
    CPU                     data  address cache    Notes
    68000   16      32       16     24     none    {1984-93} 16 MB limit*
    68020   32      32       32     32   256 code  {1987-92} parallel processing
    68030   32      32       32     32   two 256   {1988-94} 68020 + MMU, 16K
                                                   burst mode.
    68EC040 32      32       32     32    two 4K   68040 w/o FPU and MMU {~68020}
    68LC040 32      32       32     32    two 4K   68040 w/o FPU {~68030}
    68040V  32      32       32     32    two 4K   68040 w/o FPU, PowerBooks-1994
    68040   32      32       32     32    two 4K   MMU, FPU, pipelining, doubled 
                                                   internal clock rate**
    68060   32      32       32     32    two 8k   68040 + better FPU, superscalar
                                          Branch   pipelining, cache line bursts,
                                          target   3.3 V, self power management,
                                                   equivalent capabilities & 
                                                   speeds to Pentium {P54c}***
    Note: the now defunct NeXT and Amiga machines used the 68030 and 68040.
    * Earlier 68000 Mac designs created a 4 MB limit.
    ** (Electronic Buyer's News Aug 20, 1993; pointed out by Bradley Lamont and
       Motorola 68040 data book in 92) Apple now markets 68040 Macs as 'clock
       doubled' though speed is NOT in the 486dx2's class {see CPUs Comparison
    *** Will be used in Macs _only_ via third party accelerators.
    The following PowerPCs are to be in both IBM and Mac machines.  They are Motorola/IBM RISC CPU chips.
    PowerPC ALU  Registers  External bus   CPU     Features/
    CPU                     data  address cache    Notes
    MPC601  32    int 32     64     32     32K     3 instructions/cycle max,
    [.6]          fp  64                 combined  80 MHz-SPECint92: 77;
                                           I/D     SPECfp92: 93. 9 {66}, and
                                                   ~11 {80 MHz} watts*
    [.5]                                           100 MHz [.5] uses 5 W.
                                                   (MacWeek 04/04/94)
    MCP601+                                        100 MHz-SPECint92: 105;
                                                   SPECfp92: 125; 2 W.
                                                   120 MHz-SPECint92: 125;
                                                   SPECfp92: 150 {Projected}*
    MPC603                   32/          two 8k   80 MHz-SPECint92: 75,                              
                             64                    SPECfp92: 85; 3 W*
    MPC603e 32    int 32     32/    32    two 16k  100 MHz-SPECint92: 120; 
                  fp  64     64            I/D     SPECfp92* 105; 3.5 W*
                                                   133 MHz?-SPECint92: 160; 
                                                   SPECfp92: 140 {Projected}*
    MPC604  32    int 32     64     32    two 16k  4 instructions/cycle max
                  fp  64                   I/D     100 MHz-SPECint92: 160;
                                                   SPECfp92: 165; 13 W,
                                                   150 MHz-SPECint92: 225; 
                                                   SPECfp92: 250 {Projected}*
    MPC620  64      64      64/     40    two 32k  133 MHz-SPECint92: 225;  
                            128    64 e            SPECfp92: 300; 30 W {simulated}
                                   80 v            Projected: SPECint92: 330;
                                                   SPECfp92: 410*
                                                   (BYTE 11/94:113-20)
    MPC615 - x86 & MPC601 hybrid chip, May be used in future Macs.
    MPC630 - in development
    e - effective  v - virtural
    *(; MacUser 6/95:27;
     MPC601 SPECmarks are w/o a L2 memory cache. With 1 MB L2 memory cache          
     the SPECmarks increase by ~10%.  The machines use 33 MHz 64-bit bus            
     (BYTE 04/94).
     All MPC603 SPECmarks are with 1 MB L2 cache (Motorola).
     Code using POWER commands runs can run ~50% slower than expected on the
     603/604 chips.

    CPUs Comparison List

    As a general rule of thumb Motorola chips are faster than Intel chips at the same frequency {030/25 ~= 386/33; 040/33 ~= 486/50}, but Intel has chips at higher frequencies than Motorola, so this evens out. The Macintosh Bible 5th edition and IBM System User, 1/92 v13 n1 p43(1) support the comparisons made between Intel and Motorola chips below and statements made here.

    <=80186 ~ 68000 {16-bit vs 16/24/32-bit chip. The 4 MB limit on the 68000 Macs brings the chip in them down to the 80186 and lower chips, otherwise the 68000 would compare to the 80286.}

    286 ~ 68020 {hardware segmenting vs. 68020's 32-bit ALU and having no usable built-in MMU unlike their successors [80386, 68030]. The use of the hardware segmenting and the 16-bit nature put the 286 between the 60000 and 68030 in features and the LC's 16-bit data path strenghthens the 286 ~ 68020 comparison.}

    386 ~ 68030 {32-bit chips with MMUs, and protected memory. At present application protected memory is limited to A/UX 3.0. System 7.x uses this feature to protect a RAM disk created by the Memory control panel which is supported only on Powerbooks, Quadras and Power Macintoshes. 68030 Macs with 16-bit hardware paths are comparative to 386sxs}.

    486sx ~ 68LC040 {same as 486 and 68040 without the FPU; used as a low cost solution for people who do not need the FPU. Only in comparison with Windows programs does the 68LC040 approch 486SLC2 - chip cache speeds.}

    486 ~ 68040 {32-bit microprocessors with built-in FPU, MMU, 8K internal cache (which is implemented as two 4K caches in the 68040 and one in the 486). The 486dx2 is in Macs with the DOS card installed. Please note that MHz for MHz a 486dx2 outperforms a 68040. For example a 68040/40 is ~95% the speed of a 486dx2/66 (Ingram 93 report)}

    Pentium ~ None {The 68060 will not be a standard CPU in Macs and PowerPC chips running native code are ~1.50 times as fast as a Pentium of the same MHz (Ingram 94 and 95 reports)

    PowerPC = PowerPC {This CPU line is planned to run programs from DOS, Windows, OS/2 and Mac OS through the CHRP platform. Insignia's Windows emulator for Mac produces 486sx/25 speeds on Power Macintosh 6100/60 and 486dx/33 on the Power Macintosh 8100/80. Native code runs two - four times those speeds} The 615 is planned to have a x86 section.


    PowerPC machines

    IBM PowerPC

    $3,000 model delayed.

    Apple PowerPC {Power Macintosh} Configurations

    7200 - ~$1,549 {base}: 601/75 8/500/1 MB VRAM/CD 4x, 3 PCI slots; 601/90 16/500/1 MB VRAM/CD 4x: ~$1,699
    7500 and 8500 use CPU daughtercards
    7500 - ~$2,700 {base}: 601/100 16/500/2 MB VRAM/CD 4x, 3 PCI slots; 16/1 GB/2 MB VRAM/CD 4x
    8500 - $3,900 {base}: 604/120, 16/1 GB/256 Kb L2/CD 4x, 2 MB VRAM, 3 PCI slots; 16/2 GB/256 Kb L2/CD 4x: ~$4,500.
    9500 - $4,999 {base}: 604/120, 16/1 GB/512 K L2/CD 4x, CPU daughter card, 6 PCI slots, Fast SCSI, no built-in video; 604/132, 16/2 GB/512 K L2/CD 4x: $5,799

    Ethernet and GeoPort are standard features
    Second generation AV features are reportly built-in to the 7500 and 8500. Prices are averages and do not include color monitor and keyboard. (01/95 Apple PR announcement)

    Mac Clones

    Power Computing {motherboard/daughterboard set up, low cost}

    PowerWave model Information - Basic features: 604/120-150 CPUs, 3 PCI or 2 PCI & 2 NuBus slots (StarGate-$250 extra), PCI video card. Price range $3,199 - $ $4,499

    DayStar {Multiple CPUs options}
    Genesis MP - $5000-$10,000: 604/120, 32/2 GB/4x CD, PCI bus.

    Radius {Graphic workstations}
    Radius System 100 - <$10,000: 8100/110 with Thunder IV graphics card, 40 MB RAM, internal 500 MB drive, external FWB JackHammer 16 bit SCSI-2 2 GB drive, and Adobe Photoshop preinstalled.

    Mac->PowerPC upgrades

    Apple - 68040 PDS Upgrade Card: $699; 63x MPC601/68040 card - $599; logic-board upgrades range between $1000 - $2,000. In general every Macintosh that had a CD-ROM configuration has {or will have} a logic-board upgrade option.

    DayStar Digital Inc. - 66 MHz and 80 MHz processor upgrade cards for the Centris/Quadra 650, and the Quadra 700, 800, 900 and 950. Have PowerMac ROMs on the cards and allow 60ns 72-pin SIMM expansion. Has trade in for owners of old cards. Value range of old cards: from 15% to 50%.
    Price: $1,200 to $1,700 dependent on speed. (MacUser 05/94:36)

    Reply Corp. - MPC603 logic boards.

    Other PowerPCs: Canon-NeXT (NB 05/11/93), and Sun {rumored}. Other potential sources: Radius Inc., MicroNet Technology Inc., SuperMac Technology Inc, Acer America Corp, Dell Computer Corp and 11 other companies (MacWeek 9/27/93). Spacifics vague.

    ~500 native Power Macintosh programs out (Apple Announcement April 3, 1994)

    Monitor/Display support

    Both Mac and IBM have graphic accelerators. In Macs VRAM can act like a graphic accelerator but only boosts things by <=10%. IBM graphic accelerators include Matrox MGA-3D, ATI Mach64, S3-968, and #9's newest chip.


    The best PC description of present Mac video is "local bus" video. From Mar 1987 to late 1988 32-bit color cards resembled the chaotic mess that SVGA would be for IBM {see SVGA}. In 1989 Apple created 32-bit QuickDraw which totally standardized 32-bit color and drove all non-QuickDraw graphic cards out of the market. All present Macs support the use of 32-bit color through 32-bit color QuickDraw and most have a 32-bit path to video. 32-bit color QuickDraw allows the editing of X-bit images in Y-bit color in a wide range of monitors regardless of screan dpi and autosynchronous VGA, MCGA and SVGA monitors with 66.7 hz vertically and 35 kHz horizontally advalible via a hardware video adaptor (MacUser Aug 1992: 158-176)} The SE/30, II, IIx, and IIcx had only 8-bit color in ROM and needed a software patch to use 32-bit color under system 6.x (MacUser Special 1993:28-29). B&W QD could support 8 colors.
    To keep costs down and speed up most Macs have 8 to 16-bit display capability built-in, with a 24-bit expansion option. QuickDraw QX is supposed remove the 72 dpi display optimization.
    In Macs with NuBus/PCI slots or the Power Macintoshes with VRAM QuickDraw allows multiple monitor use, from several monitors showing the same thing to multiple monitors acting as one large large monitor with any degree of overlap of the pictures.

    VRAM: Video RAM.
    Standard for present non-PowerBook Mac's handling of built- in video {24-bit color palette}. Base standard was 640x480x8 with 640x480x16 rapidly becoming more common. Expansion to 640x480x24, 832x624x24, and 1,152x870x16 is possible for most of the Quadra and Power Macintosh models.


    {In an effort to remove the 'reconfiguring the system almost every time you add something' requirement for add-in cards, drivers, video, and operating systems in the IBM world, Intel, Microsoft, and 12 other hardware and software developers are working out 'plug and play' standards (PC Week 03/08/93).}

    Because of the wide range of OS available for IBM, the use of drivers bypassing BIOS, video hareware inconsitancies {see Super VGA below} and nonstanderzation of clone BIOS have left resolution of video display hardware/OS/program interaction up to the OS and video hardware in question (Faisal Nameer Jawdat). In addition, IBM and clone makers never bothered to provide a standard hardware mechanism for software to determine what display mode is actually present (Matt Healy) nor a standardized screen-drawing toolbox {like Mac's QD}. As a result detecting some modes and/or use them consistantly is a challange, especially with some third party cards. Things were so dependent on the interaction of the program, OS, print driver and monitor card that editing 32-bit pictures regardless of color mode, program, and monitor type/card combination as one can do on the Mac was near impossible (Fortune 10/04/93:112). DOS has the biggest problem, Windows is better, and NT-OS/2 are the best but this is a OS feature, not hardware and so is inconsitant from OS to OS and even from program to program {see OS section for details}. IBM machines are starting have integrated graphics accelerators, faster processors, and modular upgradeability and may have built-in sound cards, CD ROM, and Ethernet (PC Week 12/14/92).

    MDA: Monocrome Display Adapter
    Original character-mapped video mode, no graphics, 80x25 text.
    CGA: Color Graphics Array
    320x200x2 or 640x200 b/w with text-mode support of 80x24 color or 40x24 color, 16 color palette, bad for the eyes.
    EGA: Enhanced Graphics Array
    Resolutions are 640x350x4, 640x200x4 and all CGA modes {from 64 color palette}. Additional text-modes of 80x43 color and 40x43 color. Some versions could run at 256 colors, bearable on the eyes.
    VGA: Video Graphics Array*
    Resolutions are 320x200x8, 640x480x4 and all EGA modes. Additional text modes of 80x50 color, 40x50 color, and emulation of all MDA text modes. Can be programmed for many non-standard resolutions. All modes have 256 colors, from a 18-bit {IBM} to 24-bit {IBM/Mac} color palette. 25.175 MHz Pixel Clock (Mel Martinez). Monitors use analog input, incompatible with TTL signals from EGA/CGA etc.
    MCGA: Multi-Color Graphics Array*
    Subset of VGA that provides all the features of MDA & CGA, but lacks some EGA and VGA modes, like VGA 640x480x4 (DCT). Common on the initial PS/1 implementation from IBM and some PS/2 Models.
    SVGA: Super VGA {Quality of 99% of color Mac video monitors}*
    This is not a standard in the way the others were, but instead was a 'catch all' category for a group of video cards. In an effort to clean up the chaos resulting from each manufacturer using their own implementation scheme VESA was established and is used in the newer units, but things are still a mess with some people still debating as to what is SVGA and what is not. Video is either 512K [~1990], 1MB [1992], or 2MB [today], resolution of 800x600 and 1024x768 at 256 and 32,768 colors are common with most 24b at 640x480. Speedwise, too much variation and change. Most old limiting factors overcome by 40 MHz VL Bus & 386's linear address.

    Other non-SVGA standards:

    IBM's own standard, graphics accelerator with graphics functions like linedraw, polygon fill, etc. in hardware. IBM version interlaced.
    high end graphics co-processors, usually >$1000, some do 24-bit, speeds up vector-oriented graphics like CAD.
    XGA: eXtended Graphics Array {May be used in IBM PowerPC}
    newer and faster than 8514/a, only available for MCA bus-based PS/2s, clones are coming out soon. Emulates VGA, EGA, and CGA (DCT). Max resolution: 1024x768x8, also some 16 bpp modes.
    Accelerates graphics functions up to 20 times faster than standard VGA in Windows and OS/2, including line draws, bit and pixel-block transfers, area fills, masking and X/Y addressing. Has an intelligent way to detect and co-exist with other XGA-2 cards, so multiple desktops like on the Mac may not be far away. Since this is an architecture, its resolution and color depth isn't fixed {IBM implements only 16-bit [65,536] color, while other companies can have 24-bit color through IBM technical licenses}. Refresh rates up to 75 Hz, ensures flicker free, rock solid images to reduce visual discomfort, and is VGA compatible. Up to 1280x1024 on OS/2.

    *some monitor types usable by Mac. See Mac section above for specific details.


    {Speeds are baced on: throughput = (bus_clock_speed x byte_width) / transaction_overhead (Mel Martinez)}

    Both Mac & IBM {and maybe PowerPC}

    IDE: Integrated Device Electronics
    Asynchronous {~5 MB/s max} and synchronous {8.3 MB/s max} transfer. Currently the most common standard which makes its drives ~10% cheaper than SCSI. Outperforms SCSI in single-tasking OSes while underperforms SCSI in multitasking enviroments {it is not clear if this also applies to co-operative multitasking}. (BYTE 08/94:116) Limited to two drives per controler and 528 MB. Apple uses IDE internal drives that support logical block addressing in the Macintosh 630 series though many 3rd party hard drive formaters need to be updated (TidBITS#235, MacUser 09/94:77).
    Enhanced IDE
    Supports larger hard drive sizes and non-hard drive devices.
    Only external device expansion interface common to both Mac and IBM. Allows the use of any device: hard drive, printer, scanner, Nubus 87 card expansion {Mac Plus only}, some monitors, and CD-ROM. Normal {asynchronous} SCSI is 5 Mhz; fast {synchronous} SCSI is 10 Mhz {software drivers}. SCSI is limited to a total of 8 devices and an _ideal_ total cable length of 6 m {which cheap cables, terminators, connectors, and device impedance can shorten substantially} (BYTE 8/94:112).
    Main problems: Since SCSI is supposed to be terminated ONLY at the begining and end of the SCSI chain, internal terminated external devices are the biggest bane of SCSI. This along with other problems are planned to be fixed with SCSI-3.
    8-bit asynchronous {~1.5 MB/s ave} and synchronous {5 MB/s max} transfers. Asynchronous 8-bit SCSI-2 is often mistaken for synchronous SCSI-1 {see SCSI-2 for details}.
    Fully SCSI-1 compliant. Since asynchronous 8-bit SCSI-2 runs at synchronous SCSI-1 speeds using SCSI-1 hardware/software drivers, it is sometimes mistakenly consitered part of SCSI-1. 16 and 32-bit SCSI-2 require different ports, electronics, and SCSI software drivers from SCSI-1. Ports are 68-pin {16-bit} and two 68-pin/one 104-pin {32-bit}. Transfer speeds are 4-6 MB/s with 10 MB/s burst {8-bit}, 8-12 MB/s with 20 MB/s burst {16-bit}, and 15-20 MB/s with 40 MB/s burst {32-bit} (BYTE 08/94:114).
    In development, 1996. No internal terminated devices allowed, access more than 8 devices, and support for fiber-optic cables and Serial SCSI. Speed: 20 MB/s with Serial SCSI ranging between 51 Mb/s {~6.4 MB/s} to 1 Gb/s {128 MB/s}. Firewire {IEEE P1394} is one of the possible Serial SCSI options for SCSI-3 being considered (BYTE 08/94:114).
    FireWire [IEEE P1394; Serial Bus]
    intended to replace ADB, RS-232, RS-422, parallel and SCSI (BYTE 07/93:90). Has six shielded wires with 100 Mb/s {12.5 MB/s}, 200 Mb/s {25 MB/s}, 400 Mb/s {50 MB/s]. Does not require terminators and ID numbers and has limits of 63 devices per port and up to 1022 buses being bridged together. FireWire cards for Mac planned by 1995 (MacUser, 03/94 v10 n3 p40(1); Microprocessor Report, Mar 07/94 v8 n3 p18(4); Byte 07/94:37; Byte 08/94:120)
    Mac SCSI
    asynchronous SCSI-1 built-in standard since the Plus. Early versions were based off of earlier SCSI-1 specs and were not true SCIS-1. Even though Apple developed some specifications for SCSI controlers, the OS SCSI Manager needs to be rewritten to take full advantage of the features of all SCSI interfaces. As a result, present 8-bit SCSI-2 Macs are at synchronous SCSI-1 Speeds. Quadras and Power Macintoshes are only Macs with a SCSI-2 controller chip built-in (BYTE 04/94:47) though they only support 8-bit. Due to a CPU-NuBus bottleneck on older Macs, 16-bit SCSI-2 cards are very rare. Since SCSI is built-in, overall cost is lower for Mac than for IBM and PC clone machines though the gap is decreasing.
    SCSI-1 is now pretty common but it is generally not bundled with systems, except as add-on with EISA and VESA Local Bus adapters avalable {See IDE information}. Like the Mac, 8-bit SCSI-2 is used as a very fast SCSI-1 by most controllers out there. Unlike the Mac, IBM had no exact SCSI controller specifications {until CorelSCSI} which resulted in added SCSI incompatibilities (Byte 10/92:254). Because of the difference in specs sometimes PC SCSI-1 is incompatible with Mac SCSI-1.
    PCI: Peripheral Component Interconnect
    32-bit {64-bit expandable}, up to 33 MHz bus clock, combining EISA and VLB advantages; supports up to 10 slots {5 cards} (Jay C. Beavers; MacWeek 5/31/93). Intel's version of Local Bus is designed with a PCI->ISA/EISA/MCA bridge in mind (PCI spec (rev 2.0)).
    PCI is slightly different on the Mac and PC sides. On the Mac side PCI is always 33 MHz, on the PC PCI MHz is whatever multiple of the system bus speed that is 33MHz or less; ie 75 MHz CPU -> 25 MHz, 100 MHz -> 33 MHz, and 120 MHz -> 30 MHz. Replaced Nubus; a PCI->NuBus 90 adaptor is planned.


    Memory expansion
    The Mac does a complete memory check at startup by writing/reading every memory location; if something is seriously wrong with a SIMM/DIMM the Mac will not boot and give a sound chord indicating what the problem is.
    Memory data width must match the memory controller's width. Non-PowerBook Macs have three basic memory expansion set-ups:
    Non-parity 30-pin 8-bit SIMMs {Before Feb 15, 1993} - While 30-pin 9-bit parity SIMMs could be used in these Macs, only special IIcis could make use of the parity feature. Later 30-pin 16-bit SIMMs replaced these.
    64-pin SIMMs with a parity option - IIfx only.
    72-pin 32-bit SIMMs - Non-PowerBook and non-PCI Macs made after Feb 15, 1993. 168-pin 64-bit DIMMs - PCI Macs.

    Sound output
    Standard in all Macs since 128K. Stereo 8-bit 22 kHz sound became standard with SE/30. 16-bit 44.1/48 kHz stereo became standard with Sound Manager 3.0 and av Macs.
    ADBs, Printers, and modems
    Built-in ports standard. Modem & printer ports support 57600 bps asynchronous (OS default) and ~921600 bps synchronous (direct hardware writes).
    Sound input
    mono 8-bit 22 kHz since IIsi; stereo 16-bit 44.1/48 kHz in C660av, Q840av, and Power Macintoshes {AV or not}.
    Monitor interface
    built-in on most present macs. Of at least SVGA quality. The best PC description of present Mac video is "local bus" video. High end PCI and NuBus cards available.
    option for all Macs released after August 1993 and planned as a standard for the PCI Macs.
    GeoPort {AV Macs, Power Macintoshes}
    built-in V.32bis 14,400 bps modem w/ FAX, answering machine, phone, and speakerphone via software and adaptor{PhonePod}. Later adaptors were to allow PBX and ISDN use when the Telephone Tool came out (MacUser 10/93:88-9). Supports normal serial devices.
    Composite and S-video in/out ports
    standard on av Macs and supported on some of the PCI Mcs
    PDS {SE & all present non-Powerbook Macs except Q840av}
    16-bit {SE, Portable, LC, LC II, Classic line} and 32-bit {QuickRing is 64-bit bus}. Operates at CPU's MHz. Maximum through put: data path * CPU's MHz. Standardized around LC, 040, and 601 bus designs. With an adapter one NuBus card can be used in IIsi, Q610 and Q660av. Problem: some cards have timing dependency which slows throughput down.
    NuBus 87 {Mac II, Built-in support - most Modular Macs}
    32-bit, 10 MHz bus clock, 1-to-1 transaction/bus cycle ratio, and contiguous, hand-shake transactions at ~10-20 MB/s; burst mode: 37.5 MB/s (Computer Design, 06/01/89 v28 n11 p97(1); I&CS (Instrumentation & Control Systems), 07/92 v65 n7 p23(2)). First Mac standard bus; cards 12". There was SE/30 adaptor and Mac Plus SCSI->NuBus. Limited to 8 {old Macs} through 24-bit video, accelerators {some with expansion to parallel processing}, primative multiprocessing, CPU-ethernet task sharing, 8 to 16-bit SCSI-2, DSP, DMA cards {block transfers}, real time video input, PC compatible cards, and Ethernet. Replaced by Nubus 90 which in turn was replaced by PCI.
    NuBus 90
    NuBus 87 back compatible. avg throughput: ~30 MB/s (I&CS {Instrumentation & Control Systems} 07/92 v65 n7 p23(2)); burst mode: 20 MHz 70 MB/s (Noah Price). I/O bottleneck removed with Quadra 660av and 840av (MacWeek 08/02/93). 6" card standard is enforced in new machines. Replaced by PCI.
    DAV {Digital Audio Video} connector {av machines}
    provides YUV video and digital audio (Noah Price) as wall as full speed sound/video compression cards such as JPEG, MPEG, DVI and H.261.
    CPU expansion
    Handled through a daughter card, PDS or NuBus. Unlike PDS, Nubus CPU cards can allow use of multiple processors at the same time {Like MCA; example-RocketShare} via parallel processing. Each NuBus card needs its own memory but most NuBus cards of this type come with 8 MB RAM of SIMMs on the card standard. The 630 68x00->PPC daughter cards allow use of the old 68x00 CPU reducing the need for the software emulator.


    Memory expansion: parity SIMMs, non-parity SIMMs {some newer models do a Mac-like SIMM memory check}, or a dozen or so different types of memory boards including daughterboard CPU exchanges. As with Macs SIMM expansion, memory data width must match the CPU data bus.

    HD Interfaces {limited to hard drives by design or lack of development}:

    MFM: Modified Frequency Modulation, RLL: Run Length Limited Obsolete interfaces only used with old small [ 60mb] hard drives.

    ESDI: Enhanced Small Device Interface
    ~1.25MB/s throughput. generally considered better interface than SCSI-1 in many ways but not common enough for practical consideration. Device choices are very limited compared to SCSI-1.

    BUS interfaces

    {Plug and Play is still in the works}

    PC-bus {used in ISA machines}
    ISA {equivalent to most of the Mac's built-in ports}
    16-bit bus. Has 24-bit address path limit {produces 16 MB limit for which there are software workarounds} (PC Mag 4/27/93:105). 1.5 MB/s (Byte 3/92:132), 5.3 MB/s max. Uses edge-triggered interrupts, can't share them, hence comes the IRQ conflict. Busmastering capabilities provided by individial cards which tend to conflict with each other. Some cards aren't bandwidth limited {COM ports, LPT ports, game ports, MIDI card, etc.} while others are {video and disk controllers}. Dominant factor, but it's showing its age. All ISA motherboard designs must be 16-bit (PC World 02/93:144-5; David Charlap). Rumored to be part of IBM Power PC PReP specs.
    MCA: Micro Channel {NuBus 87 equivalent (Personal Computing, 09/88 v12 n9 p115(1))}
    IBM's 16 and 32-bit bus; "allows use of more than one CPU in a computer" (DCT) with any two components 'talking' as fast as they can handle it, up to 20 MB/s (Computer Design, 06/01/89 v28 n11 p97(1)). Also has a 80 MB/s burst mode. Never took off because it was incompatible with ISA/EISA. Was planned to be IBM PowerPC 601's bus interface (Carl Jabido).
    EISA {compares to most of the Mac's built-in ports and NuBus 87}
    32-bit, 8.33 MHz, burst mode: 33 MB/s. Back supports ISA cards. It also has the ability to self-configure cards like MCA and allows multiple bus masters, sharable interrupt and DMA channels and multiple CPU use.
    VESA Local Bus: VLB {PDS equivalent}
    Local Bus standard. Runs at CPU clock rate, up to 40 Mhz and is heavily tied to the 486 CPU line(BYTE 07/93:84). Burst modes: ~130 MB/s {32-bit} 250 MB/s {64-bit} (Byte 10/92:128). Limited to three slots but allows bus mastering and will coexist with either ISA or EISA. Consitered ideal for video and disk I/O.


    {assumes full installation [print drivers, fonts, etc.] and multiple application use.}

    PowerPC OSes

    IBM OS based {see IBM OS section for details}:
    AIX PowerOpen, NeXTStep, Solaris OS, Expose and Novell DOS 7.0
    Mac AIX [UNIX] {1995}
    This OS is planned to replace A/UX.
    MAE {Macintosh Application Enviroment}
    Apple's Mac-on-Unix 680x0 emulator. (
    MAS {Macintosh Application Services}
    Apple's Mac-on-Unix 680x0 emulator that also runs PowerPC Mac programs on PowerOpen versions of UNIX.
    Pink [Taligent OS]
    Alpha version is out (MacWeek 07/18/94}, final version expected in 1995. PowerOpen version of OSes will likely contain parts of this OS (MacWeek 01/25/93).
    System 7.1.2
    first OS for the PowerPC Mac.
    Windows NT
    Possible port (MacWeek 04/05/93). See IBM OS section for details. WorkPlace OS: OS/2 for the PowerPC with Pink features. Will run Mac, Windows, and AIX programs and may have parts of the Mac OS (PC Week 09/20/93) and may even run Mac programs (MacWeek 09/27/93). It will run first on PowerPCs then on the x86/Pentium line (PC Week 09/20/93).

    Mac OSes

    Apple urges programmers NOT to call the hardware directly {This includes floating point numbers} and, until Copland, put some 512K to 4 MB of API and OS internals in ROM. The 'one OS-no direct hardware access' strategy has allowed programmers to write smaller programs, allowed Apple a smaller disk OS, and have a generally lower RAM requirement than more generalized-patch work systems.Macs use 'Masked ROM' which is as fast as DRAM (Jon Wtte). Simple built-in handicap access {Easy Access} since System 4.1.

    Single program usage base requirements: 1 MB and DD floppy, cooperatively-multitasking base requirements: 2 MB and HD floppy. Features: a GUI, cooperative-multitasker [MultiFinder], standard program interface, standard stereo sound support [snd], 7.0.0 print drivers, and Network receiving part of AppleShare software. This 24-bit OS has a 8 MB RAM barrier. Some third party products allow 14 MB of Virtual Memory as long as real RAM is below 8 MB. 6.0.8L was System 6 for some Macs that required System 7.0.X and is rarely used.
    Base requirements: 2 MB, 40 MB hard drive, and 68000; De-facto standard to run all features well: 4 MB, 80 MB hard drive, and 68030. Using up to 10.08 MB of hard disk space this 24 and 32-bit OS has 6.0.7 features plus program linking within and between computers [IAC], built-in server capabilities {Filesharing can be used by older OSes using AppleShare Client software and can be accessed by 10 Macs max; 4-5 is more speed practical, IAC requires 7.X}, Virtual Memory in machines with MMU, drag and drop, QuickTime, wildcard search/selection & built-in TrueType support. Supports sound input [AIFF and snd] for most present machines. Can access up to 1 GB of true RAM and 4 GB of virtual memory. To use real RAM beyond 8 MB it must be in 32-bit mode; older machines require 'Mode 32' or '32-Bit Enabler' extension. Apple's last 'free' OS. More useable than MS-DOS or Windows 3.1 (Consumer Reports)
    7.0.1 with WorldScript support, speedier {10% faster on Quadra line (sys71_vs_70_speed.txt)}, and less RAM usage than 7.0.X (MacWeek 9/14/92; PC Week 9/7/92). Marks the start of Apple selling its Mac OS: Bundled with new machines, $49 for 7.0.X upgrades, $99 otherwise. Programs take up about the same hard disk space as comparitive DOS programs and about one-half less disk space than their x86/Pentium Windows counterparts (Byte April 93:102; Ingram Report 10/93).
    7.1.0 rewritten for PPC chips with PC Exchange. 32-bit OS. On Mac without Power Macintosh ROMs this adds 4 MB to RAM requirements. (PC Week 02/28/94). Native code programs are 10 - 30% larger {i.e these programs are only 57% - 65% the size of comparitive x86/Pentium Windows programs} (calculations from Motorola & Apple announcements; Byte 04/93:102; Ingram Report 10/93) Rumor-best speed is with VM set at 1 MB above real RAM.
    7.1.2 with AppleScript {scriptable Finder}, MacTCP, Macintosh Easy Open, QuickDraw GX, PowerTalk, PlainTalk, Thread Manager {allows preemptive multitasking}, Drag and Drop Manager {between programs}, improved Find File, and Apple Guide {balloon help replacement}. Also includes WindowShade, a hierachical Apple menu, a menu clock, and Sticky Memos. 680x0/MPC601 version requires 2.5/4.5 MB {4/8 recommended} RAM for core elements, 3/5.5 MB {8/16 recommended} for adding QuickDraw GX {display PostScript equivalent} and PowerTalk. (BYTE 8/94:188; MacUser 09/94:79).
    7.5.2 {Marconi-9500}
    7.5 with more natire code, improved and faster 68x00 emulator, faster disk I/O, and new networking architecture {Open Transport}.
    8.0 {Copland}
    Base requirements: 8 MB, 40 MB HD {20 MB for OS, 20 MB for swap file}. Modular disk based {not ROM based} hardware independent {CHRP compliant} MacOS. 95% native and has a microkernel, multitheading, limited preemptive multiasking, memory protection, new VM, more efficient RAM usage, and a new concurrent I/O. Back supports System 7.x programs. Some feature will show up as System 7.5 extensions.
    ~1997-8. Microkernel based, preemptive multitasking, a concurrent File Manager and configurable allocation block sizes with a 4 KB default (MacWeek 7/11/94).
    A/UX 3.0.1 {3.1-wgs 95} [UNIX]
    Base requirements: 8 MB RAM and 80 MB hard drive. To run well: 16 MB RAM and 240 MB hard drive. Apple's version of Unix based on an old AT&T SVR2 release, with extensions from more recent SV releases, and BSD releases. The memory and disk requirements are about average, for a networked protected mode preemptively multitasking server OS (Faisal Nameer Jawdat).
    MachTen {by Tenon}
    "Berkeley's 4.3BSD Unix, built on a Carnegie Mellon Mach foundation (Mach 2.5). It runs as an application on the native Macintosh Operating System (MacOS). Only Unix that runs on a Powerbook." ( Base requirements: 8 MB RAM and 16 MB disk. Software development tools adds ~13 MB and the X server adds 5 MB minimum. PowerPC native version due out 2Q 95.

    Note: sound output was provided in OSes 3.2 to 6.0.5 via many third party formats including the following: snd, WAVE, ASND, FSSD, QSSN, SMSD, SOUN, dc2d, and DCFL. In 6.0.7 the sound manager formally established sound 'snd' and AIFF as standards which causes some playback problems for the other formats, though most still play correctly.

    IBM/PC clone OSes

    The wide array of OSes allowed programmers a wide range of ways to boost the speed of their programs; either by using obscure OS hooks or in some cases bypassing the OS totally and writing to the hardware directly.

    MS-DOS 6.22
    Conventional Memory mode is limited to either 640 K {DOS's own memory manager} or 1 MB {third party memory managers}. XMS allows up to 16 MB but is usable only by certain programs. Protected Mode Interface (DPMI) compliant programs running in 32-bit Protected Mode [386dx] also allow 16 MB. Contains DOS 4.0 GUI shell, disk defragmenter, debugger for the CONFIG.SYS file and built-in file compresion. It needs a $80 module for networking. (InfoWorld 8/29/94).
    MS-DOS 7.0
    In development (PC Week 04/05/93). Will come with Windows95.
    Windows 3.0
    Runs on top of DOS. Breaks 640K/1 M barrier but still uses DOS file structure. Base requirements: 1 MB, floppy and 286; to run well 2 MB, hard drive, 386sx and fast display adapter {> 8-bit}. Has Mac's QD equivalent called Windows GDI [Graphics Device Interface]. Does not have consistent application interfaces {Like 84-85 Mac programs} nor a very large program base {compared to DOS}, still tends to slow the machine down (Info-IBMPC Digest V92 #186) with speed more dependent on the display adapter then on the CPU (Bill Coleman) and "A user pumping up a Windows machine past 64 MB (or even 16 MB in some cases) can encounter some nasty conflicts." (Computer Shopper, 07/93 v13 n7 p180(7)). Some programs need editing of config.sys, autoexec.bat, or system.ini to run/display correctly (Fortune 10/04/93:112). Window programs tend to be disk and memory hogs compared to their DOS counterparts (Byte April 93:98-108).
    Windows 3.1
    A faster version of Windows 3.0 with better memory managment. Base requirements 2 MB, hard drive and 386sx; to run well 8 MB, hard drive, 386sx (PC Magazine 94). Takes a 12-15% performance hit in enchanced {32-bit} mode (BYTE 11/93:85). In general Windows and its applications occupy 1.84 times more disk space than their 680x0 Macintosh counterparts (Byte 04/93:102; Ingram Report 93).
    Windows for Workgroups
    To run well: 4 MB RAM and 386dx (PC World Feb/93:160). Intermediary between Win 3.1 and Windows NT. It is basically Windows 3.1 with built-in peer to peer networking support.
    Windows 95 [Chicago]
    Aug 95; Requirements: 8 MB and 386; 486/Pentium 12-16 MB recommended, 60 MB HD space (US News 08/07/95:54). 32-bit Plug and Play aware OS combining 3.x and NT features that does not run on top of DOS. Access Pack {Easy Access-like} included. DOS and Win 16 programs run in "virtural machines" created by the OS.
    Windows NT
    16 MB, ~50 MB of disk space [including swap file] recommended (PC Week 07/19/93). This 32-bit OS has limited protected mode multitasking, multithreading, symmetric multiprocessing, recoverable file system, and 32-bit data GDI. Has built-in OSF DCE compliant networking and can handle up to 4 GB RAM. Windows programs ran up to 10% slower on the beta (PC Week 03/15/93).
    Daytona {NT 3.5}
    Smaller memory requirments, PPC, and OpenGL
    Object File System, New GUI, and intergrates Plug and Play.

    Non MS-OSes

    IBM's UNIX system, planned to be a subset of PowerOpen and Taligent OS. 3.2.5 is a precursor to PowerOpen-compliant 4.0 (PC Week 09/13/93). Variant will replace A/UX in Macs.
    4 MB, 80 MB HD. May be used as a PowerPC OS (PC Week 06/28/93).
    PC-DOS 6.3
    IBM's version of DOS. It runs Windows much faster then MS-DOS due to faster file I/O and video handling (InfoWorld 8/29/94).
    DR DOS 6.0
    same as DOS 5.0 with some extras {like built-in data compression} and memory management enhancements. Still has 640K/1MB barrier.
    Novell DOS 7.0 with a Linux 1.0-based kernel that was planned to run on PowerPC chip. Rumor is that it has been shelved.
    OS/2 2.1
    Base requirements - 4 MB RAM, 40 MB HD, 386sx; to run well - 8-16 MB RAM, 60 MB hard drive {uses 17-33 MB}, and 386dx CPU. This 32-bit multithreaded, multitasking OS with UNIX-like features can address up to 4 GB RAM but on ISA systems using their own DMA {Direct Memory Access} drivers ALL memory above 16 MB RAM is used a fast swap file. Windows programs run faster on this than on DOS and Multimedia support built-in (BYTE June 93:193).
    OS/2 3.0 {Warp}
    Base requirements - 4 MB RAM, 35 - 50 MB HD space, 386sx; Connect version - 8/90 {bonus pack adds 30 MB} 16 MB RAM. 32-bit Plug and Play aware multitasking OS with protected memory and protected application features. Runs Win16 programs slower than Windows 3.1 or Win95.
    NeXTStep 3.2
    Base requirements-8 MB {2-bit grayscale}/12 MB {8-bit grayscale}/16 MB {16-bit color}, 120 MB {330 MB with Developer tools} hard drive, 486sx. Suggested-12 MB {2-bit grayscale}/16 MB {8-bit grayscale}/24 MB {16-bit color}, 200 MB {400 MB with Developer tools} hard drive , 486sx (NeXTStep CD-ROM). Object-oriented Mach (UNIX)-based microkernal GUI OS with built-in multi-architecture binary support, preemptive multitasking, multithreading, virtual memory, multimedia e-mail, on-line help, Display PostScript Level 2, networking support {NFS 4.0, Novell, Ethernet, Token Ring}, Pixar's Interactive- and Photorealistic- 3D RenderMan, Pantone color support, and Object Links. Can read, write, and initialize Mac and IBM disks. (1993 NeXT, Inc. literature - Dayne Miller). Lacks device-drivers for some hardware cards, DriverKit to write above lacking device-drivers, and supports Portable Distributed Objects and OpenStep. (
    Solaris OS for x86
    a SunSoft port. A 32-bit OS with symmetric multiprocessing and multithreading, built-in networking capabilities with tools to allow remote configuring and adminstration features, and a communication package. WABI {windows emulator} runs Windows programs 60% faster than Windows 3.1 does on a 486. Client: $795, 50 users server: $1,995, 1000s users server: $5,995. Developer kits-software: $495,hardware: $195.

    Networking [Includes printing]

    WYSIWYG printing can be a problem with either Mac of IBM machines especially if one sends TrueType fonts to a older style PostScript printer.


    Hardware: Built-in printer port and a built-in modem port. LocalTalk has moderate speeds (230.4 Kb/s), requires special connectors for each machine ($15 and up), and is run through the printer port. Some third party networking programs use the modem port. Built-in Ethernet is becoming common with transceivers available {Power Macintosh and Quadras} but many older Macs require a PDS or Nubus card at about $150-$300 for each machine. These cards provide three connectors and transceivers {thick, thin, and 10BaseT} for Ethernet. TokenRing has been a network option since 1989. Over five years a Mac is the cheapest overall (The Gartner Group - Fortune 10/04/93:110).

    Software: AppleTalk {the suite of protocols} standard with Mac OS, which can use variety of media types. AppleShare client software included with the OS and can connect to file servers such as Novell Netware, 3Com 3+Open, Banyan Vines, DEC Pathworks, Apple's AppleShare servers, System 7 File Sharing machines, and AFP servers running on variety of UNIX hosts. MacTCP allows typical TCP/IP communications (telnet, ftp, NFS, rlogin). Third-party software to connect to NFS servers. DEC Pathworks provides DECnet support. Peer-to-peer file sharing software built into System 7.1 (See OS section). Full server software is extra.

    Printing requires connection of the printer and the printer being selected in the chooser. Changing printers is by selecting a different name in the chooser. The same is true of connecting to servers.

    Printing bugs: Some TrueType fonts are different from the screen bitmap font which can cause problems in WYSIWYG printing. The best example of this is the Monaco font.


    Hardware: LocalTalk [not widely used], Ethernet, ArcNet, and TokenRing.

    Software: Novell Netware, IBM Lan Server, Banyan Vines, DECNet, Windows/Work Groups, AppleTalk protocols, and AppleShare {subset of AppleTalk}.

    Each of the MS-DOS networking schemes are, in general, totally incompatible with the others. Once you have chosen one, you are pretty much locked-in to that product line from then on. Windows/Work Groups is a little more forgiving and removes some of this problem. Novell Netware is the biggest, {~80 percent of the corporate market.} and in general is more powerful and offers better control/management/security than AppleShare, but it's also more complex to set up and manage. This will change due to the use of the Mac finder and file management system by Novell (MacWeek 3/22/93).

    Printing {Very OS dependent}

    DOS: If it's a single user, then you plug the printer into the parallel port, and don't worry about it {Tweeking may be needed with poorly written software}. Network Printing is not controlled by the system, but is mostly implemented by the actual program, therefore performance varies from one software program to the next.
    Windows 3.x
    Supports standard drivers and can do a good job of showing "jobs" in the print queue, but it can list printers as "active"... even if they are not. This becomes a problem if there are several incompatible printers on the same net, because there's no way for software to reliably determine which printer is active right now. Windows for Workgroups is more Mac-like and intelligent about this.
    Mac-like; the os deals with printers, with apps making calls to the OS.
    Printing bugs
    Due to poor programing some programs for all the above OSes do not have WYSIWYG printing. This is the fault of the programs in question and not that of the OS involved.

    Price issue: This is very dynamic with Mac providing more build-in features than IBM and IBM being more 'get only what you need' then Mac, and price wars going on in both worlds.
    In general, when one adds all the standard Mac hardware features to an IBM {built-in input/output sound support, SCSI, PDS, built-in monitor support, built-in networking, standard interface, and NuBus equivalent in higher machines} the Mac tends to be cheaper then an equivalent equipted IBM machine at purchace and over five years. (IBM System User, Jan 1992 v13 n1 p43(1) {91 Ingram report}; Fortune 10/04/93:110 {92 Gartner Group report}; BYTE 9/94:79 {93 Gartner Group report-Windows PC}; 93 Ingram report; 94 Ingram report; Business Week, 03/06/95:73).
    {Since some IBM monitors can be used with Macs the over all cost of a Mac can be cut even further (MacUser Aug 1992:158-176)}

    These are the facts as they were known to me on 12/01/95 and may be changed by new developments, announcements, or corrections. Corrections to the information are welcome.

    Bibliography notes
    'Info-IBMPC Digest' back issues were available from
     {discontinued Oct 1993} in directory PD2:.
    'Dictionary of Computer Terms 3rd ed.' (ISBM 0-8120-4824-5) (Jay C. Beavers) (Sean) (David Charlap) (Bill Coleman) (Matt Healy) (Carl B Jabido) (Faisal Nameer Jawdat) (Dana Kilcrease) (John H. Kim) (Bradley Lamont) (Mel Martinez) (Dayne Miller) (Mel Park) (Noah Price) (Terje Rydland) (Len Schultz) (Erik. A Speckman) (Jon Wtte) (Nan Zou)
    "Eliminate the impossible and what ever remains, no matter how improbable,
    is the truth" -- Sir Arthur Conan Doyle through Sherlock Holmes in The 
    Adventure of the Beryl Coronet, The Adventure of the Blanched Soldier, Sign of 
    Four and The Adventure of the Bruce-Partington Plans.
    "The burden of proof should be on the people who make these statements, to show where they got their information from, to see if their conclusions and interpritaions are valid, and if they have left anything out."
    -- _The Case of the Bermuda Triange_ Nova/Horizon
    Mac-IBM-compare maintained by Bruce Grubb.
    Last updated Dec 1, 1995

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