Finger-FAQ at - "finger email@example.com" ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Macintosh PowerPC Frequently Asked Questions ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- DISCLAIMER Reader beware. I do not guarantee or take any responsibility for the validity of this document. Remember that much of this information comes from corporate PR, and hence may hold very little relation to the truth. Remember what your mother told you about guys like me. etc. The editor of this FAQ is not an employee of Apple, IBM, or Motorola, but is simply an individual trying to make information easily available over the Internet. FOLLOW-UP INFO Please contribute questions, corrections, and any additional information relevant to this FAQ by emailing the author at: firstname.lastname@example.org *PLEASE DO NOT ADD TO NET TRAFFIC BY POSTING THIS INFORMATION!* CREDIT WHERE DUE Much of the information in this FAQ came from MacWeek magazine, Internet posts, Motorola advertisements, Apple press releases, and individual contributors. Other information was included that was "common knowledge" or from the editors personal experience. Much of the information added since the first version of this FAQ came via email from contributors listed in the "acknowledgments" section at the end of this document. PURPOSE This FAQ was created in response to a request for a PowerPC FAQ in comp.sys.mac.hardware. It exists to answer basic questions about the future of Macintosh and its relation to the PowerPC series of microprocessors. ADMINISTRATIVE NOTES 10/9/93 Those with no access to Internet news can read the FAQ using by using the finger utility. Just finger "email@example.com." 2/20/94 This FAQ has undergone a major revision. Much information has been removed as its proper location is the new PowerPC FAQ. Macintosh specific information remains here. This FAQ has also just received a much needed information update. 3/13/94 This is the last posting before the big 3/14 release. No price info has been included because Apple no longer has official retail prices. NOTE: I am not updating the name of the FAQ to include the word "PowerMac" because the names of future PowerPC based Powerbooks and other models has yet to be determined. PowerMacBook isn't the easiest thing to pronounce now is it? Guess Apple should have thought about this a while back ;) BLATANT SOLICITATION - Intern for Hire The editor of this FAQ, a third year Computer Science Honors Student at The Ohio State University College of Engineering, is looking for a summer internship in the field of software or hardware design (or anything else interesting). If your organization is looking for an experienced intern for the upcoming summer quarter (aprox. June 13-Sept. 16) please send email to Schechter.firstname.lastname@example.org or MAC_PPC_FAQ@postbox.acs.ohio-state.edu. **************************Table of Contents****************************** Introduction (Above) Headers Version/Disclaimer Follow-up Info Credit Where Do Purpose Administrative Notes Table of Contents (you are here) The Chip What is a PowerPC microprocessor and why is Apple putting it in Macintosh computers? Operating Systems What will be the native operating system of Macintosh PowerPC? Will I be able to run Windows applications? What is PowerOpen? What other operating systems are being developed for the PowerPC and when will they be available? The First Machines When can I get my first PowerPC computer? Will the first Apple Power PC machines have AV (Audio Visual) capabilities, like a built in DSP chip? Can I upgrade my machine? What bus will the Macintosh PowerPC use for expansion slots? Programmer's Questions How should I program now to avoid PPC porting problems later? With 64 bit addressing coming out with the PowerPC 620, should I start programming 64 bit clean? What development environments are available for compiling Mac PPC code? Additional Literature How can I keep up with Apple and PowerPC over the Internet? How can I reach Motorola for even more PowerPC info? What information is available? Acknowledgments Contributors ******************************The Chip*********************************** -What is a PowerPC microprocessor and why is Apple putting it in Macintosh computers? A PowerPC microprocessor is a RISC microprocessor written to standards formalized by an alliance between Apple, Motorola, and IBM. This standard will allow multiple manufacturers to release their own versions of PowerPC chips that will run the same source code. The PowerPC architecture was based on IBM's POWER architecture, the foundation for IBM's RS/6000 line of computers. Currently, the PowerPC 601 and the low power PowerPC 603 chips are being produced. Also planned are the PowerPC 604 and 620, each of which should show a two-fold increase in power. IBM also recently announced a PowerPC 615 chip, which will include hardware for emulation of the x86 architecture. Apple is replacing the CISC based 680x0 processors currently used as the central processor of the Macintosh line with PowerPC CPUs because the performance of the PowerPC's RISC architecture is far superior to that 680x0 line. In fact, the PowerPC will be able to emulate (in software) a 680x0 at speeds of a low end Quadra. This emulation will allow Macintosh PowerPC to run virtually all existing Macintosh software. Software compiled specifically for the PowerPC chip will run at speeds aproximately four times that of the fastest Quadras. By using the first iteration of a processor of a new architecture, Apple will continue to be able to offer Macintosh users machines with increased performance every year. While the PowerPC architecture has room to grow, the latest in the aging x86 line, the Pentium, can barely keep up with the slowest PowerPC. The follwing table demonstrates this: Test PowerPC 601 Pentium Clock Speed 66 MHz 80MHz 66 MHz ----------------------------------------------------------- SPECint92 62 77 64.5 SPECfp92 72 93 56.9 Power (worst case) 8.5w ? 16w Die Size (mm^2) 120 ? 262 For more PowerPC processor specific information refer to the PowerPC FAQ edited by Derek Noonburg (email@example.com) which is posted to comp.sys.powerpc and the appropriate ".answers" groups and archived to: rtfm.mit.edu:pub/usenet/news.answers/powerpc-faq ***************************Operating Systems***************************** -What will be the native operating system of Macintosh PowerPC? Apple plans to release its first PowerPC based Macintosh computers in March with System 7 as its native operating system. The operating system will have a built in 680x0 emulator, but will not emulate the 68882 math coprocessor. Those Macintosh users who are already using System 7 should notice little, if any, difference in the way their operating system functions. A large portion of the ROM and operating system code will be native, but rarely used Macintosh calls may be emulated. -Will I be able to run Windows and WindowsNT applications? Insignia Solutions is bringing their SoftWindows software to the Macintosh PowerPC platform. While the initial version will only emulate a 286, future versions will feature true 486 emulation. Apple announced February 9, 1994 that it plans to sell some Macintosh PowerPC machines with SoftWindows pre-installed, with extra memory to hold the extra operating system. The Apple press release had this to say about SoftWindows: SoftWindows will give DOS and Windows users an easy path to the powerful new Macintosh computing platform--and the promise of hundreds of new applications now under development that will harness the full benefits of PowerPC technology. Depending on system configuration and applications, SoftWindows will provide Macintosh with PowerPC users performance that will range from today's Intel 386- and 486-based systems. SoftWindows provides full MS-DOS and Windows in standard mode, as well as built-in PC network support for Novell NetWare, LAN Manager, Banyan Vines, Windows NT Advanced Server and TCP/IP. SoftWindows is also compatible with the full range of PC devices and systems, including COM and LPT ports, floppy drives, memory systems, video displays and CD-ROMs. To leverage the performance of Window's applications on Macintosh with PowerPC systems, Insignia's engineering optimized the latest Microsoft Windows release, Windows 3.1, and wrote features such as the display driver that maps Windows operations directly to the Macintosh QuickDraw graphics system. -What is PowerOpen? The PowerOpen Association defines and promotes the PowerOpen Environment (POE). The POE is not an operating system, it is a definition containing an API specification as well as an ABI specification. The presence of the ABI specification in the POE is a factor distinguishing PowerOpen from other open systems (POSIX, XPG4, etc.) since it allows achieving platform independent binary compatibility. Outside of the POE, binary compatibility is typically limited to a particular hardware platform. The POE is an open standard, derived from AIX and conforming to industry open standards including POSIX, XPG4, Motif, etc. The POE specification will be publicly available to anyone wishing to produce either applications or hardware platforms. The PowerOpen Association will provide the necessary conformance testing and POE branding. The key features of the POE follow: * Based on the PowerPC architecture * Hardware bus independence * System implementations can range from laptops to supercomputers * Requires a multi-user, multi-tasking operating system * Networking support * X windows extension * Macintosh Application Services extension * Motif * Conformance tested and certified by an independent party (PowerOpen Association) The POE specification is targeted for availability in the first quarter of 1994. The PowerOpen association has some information available online; for retrieval instructions, send mail containing the word "help" to firstname.lastname@example.org. -What other operating systems are being developed for the Macintosh PowerPCs and when will they be available? AUX Apple's next UNIX release is planned to be PowerOpen compliant. Pink (Taligent) Taligent (The Child of Apple & IBM) plans to release its operating system in 1995. This operating system will run software originally written for a number of different operating environments. Windows NT (Motorola?) Microsoft recently licensed the code for Windows NT to Motorola. Whether this code will be re-licensed to Apple or IBM has yet to be seen. Expect some form of Windows NT in '94. ***************************The First Machines**************************** -When can I get my first Macintosh PowerPC computer? Apple is currently planning to release its first PowerPC machines MONDAY, MARCH 14, 1994. The low end PowerMac 6100 will run at 60MHz, appear in a Centris 610 (a.k.a. pizza) box, contain 8 megabytes of memory, and will be yours for a price of about $1,800. Expect options including internal CD-ROM, AV boards, and Softwindows packaged with extra memory. The PowerMac 7100 will likely clock at 66MHz and the 8100 is expected to clock at 80MHz. Portable PowerPC 603 Macintosh's are expected in late 1994, early 1995. -Will the first Apple PowerPC's have AV (Audio Visual) capabilities, like a built in DSP? PowerPC chips are fast enough so that they should be able to do Digital Signal Processing (DSP) without an additional chip. However, in order to keep PowerPC within reach of low end buyers, Apple is not including A/V technologies in its lowest end PowerMacs. MacWeek reports the PPC A/V machines, code named "TNT," will be able to drive a color monitor and a NTSC television monitor simultaneously. TNT machines are likely candidates to receive PCI busses. -Can I upgrade my machine? The official Apple Macintosh upgrade path will include the following machines: Macintosh IIvx, IIvi Macintosh LC 475, 520, 550, 575 Centris/Quadra 605, 610, 650, 660AV, 800, 840AV Performa 475, 476, 550, 600 series Apple Workgroup Server 60, 80, 95 In addition, Apple will be licensing chips and ROMÕs to third parties (including DayStar Digital which will provide Quadra 900/950 upgrades) for use in upgrade cards for other Macintosh models. Remember, however, that these models often have a slow bus and slow memory. The result is that even if a third party upgrade board is provided for, say, an SE/30, it will still not run as fast as a new machine. -What bus will the PowerPC Macintosh use for expansion slots? The first few machines will probably use the same NuBus technology in Apple's new AV machines. Later, Intel's PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) bus standard will be used, as its speeds are far superior to NuBus. *************************Programmer's Questions************************** -How should I program now to avoid PPC porting problems later? 1. Program in C or C++ (Although Pascal and other languages will eventually be released, C and C++ will be the first languages available.) 2. Don't assume variable sizes will remain the same. An 'int' in Think C is 16 bits, but PowerPC compilers will use 32 bits. 3. Make your code ANSI C compliant 4. Avoid programming in assembly language at all costs. If speed is an issue, code in C first, and then conditionally compile 680x0 code in as well. 5. If you have a great amount of assembly language code, and you want to start preparing to port now, consider using Echo Logic's FlashPort. For more information, contact Echo Logic at: 943 Holmdel Rd. Holmdel, NJ 07733 Telephone - (908) 946-1100 Fax - (908) 946-9146 -With 64 bit addressing coming out with the PowerPC 620, should I start programming 64 bit clean? YES. Exactly how to do this, however, has yet to be made clear. The best advice I can give is that you should program in clean C or C++, without making assumptions about pointer size. -What development environments are available for compiling Mac PPC code? Apple released the following information in a press release on 3 January, 1994: Macintosh on RISC SDK The Macintosh on RISC SDK is an MPW¨-based (Macintosh Programmer's Workshop) environment that runs on a 68020, 68030 or 68040 Macintosh and generates native code for Macintosh with PowerPC microprocessor- based systems. The comprehensive, cross-development environment enables developers to jumpstart the application development process. As soon as Mactintosh with PowerPC processor-based systems become available, developers can finish the port by testing and debugging their native Macintosh with PowerPC applications. The Macintosh on RISC SDK includes: - C/C++ compiler for high quality, optimized code - PowerPC Assembler supporting the full PowerPC instruction set - Two-machine PowerPC Debugger with an easy-to-use interface for setting breakpoints, examining and changing memory and registers and viewing code - Universal System Header Files for both 680X0 and PowerPC processor-based platforms - MacApp¨ 3.1, an update version of AppleÕs object-oriented application framework for accelerating application development. This gives existing MacApp developers a path to port their applications native on Macintosh with PowerPC. Metrowerks CodeWarrior CodeWarrior is the industry's first native development environment for the PowerPC microprocessor-based and 680X0 microprocessor-based Macintosh. With quick turn-around time and an integrated user interface, CodeWarrior enables programmers to quickly and easily develop applications for both platforms using the same source code base. CodeWarrior comes in three versions, Gold, Silver and Bronze. The Gold version is the most comprehensive and includes development releases of C, C++ for the 680X0 Macintosh and for the Macintosh with PowerPC; a development release of Pascal for the 680X0 Macintosh; and C and C++ cross-compilers. The Silver version supports native PowerPC microprocessor development only, and will be released when Apple ships Macintosh with PowerPC systems. The Bronze version, available now in pre-release form, supports 680X0 development only. Both products are available from the Apple Programmer's and Developers Association, (800) 282-2732. Symantec is also rumored to be working on PowerPC compilers. ************************Additional Literature**************************** -How can I keep up with Apple and PowerPC over the Internet? Gopher to "info.hed.apple.com" for the latest Apple press releases and product information. Apple also keeps an ftp server at "ftp.apple.com" For information on PowerOpen, send email containing the word help to email@example.com. -How can I reach Motorola for even more PowerPC info? General Information: 1-800-845-MOTO For Literature: USA: Motorola Literature Distribution P.O. Box 20912 Phoenix, AZ 85036 (phone 1-800-441-2447) EUROPE: Motorola Ltd. European Literature Centre 88 Tanners Drive Blakelands Milton Keynes, MK14 5BP, UK JAPAN: Nippon Motorola Ltd. 4-32-1, Nishi-Gotanda Shinagawa-ku Tokyo 141 Japan ASIA: Motorola Semiconductors H. K. Ltd. Silicon Harbour Center No. 2 Dai King Street Tai Po Industrial Estate Tai Po, N.T., Hong Kong Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector Technical Responsiveness Center: (800) 521-6274. -What information is available? From Motorola (information free except where a price is listed): PowerPC Brochure (BR1135/D) PowerPC 601 RISC Microprocessor, Technical Summary (MPC601/D) PowerPC 601 Hardware Specification (MPC601EC/D) PowerPC Software Overview (compilers, assemblers, simulators, loaders & debuggers) (SDP/D) PowerPC C Compiler System, Product Review (CCOMPSTM/D) PowerPC Fortran compilation System, Product Review (FTRANCOMPSTM/D) PowerPC Architectural Simulator, Product Review (PPCARCH32/D) PowerPC 601 Programmer's Reference Guide (MPC601PRG/D) PowerPC 601, User's Manual (MPC601UM/AD) -- $6.50 PowerPC Development Tools Catalog (MPCTOOLBK/AD) -- $4.50 Special thanks to Yoshio Turner (firstname.lastname@example.org) who has provided all the literature information that follows: Motorola will release the first revisions of the following documents: PowerPC 601 RISC Microprocessor Hardware Specifications (MPC601EC/D). Contains pertinent physical characteristics of the 601. Available Oct 18 1993 PowerPC 601 RISC Microprocessor User's Manual (MPC601UM/AD). Defines the functionality of the PowerPC 601 RISC microprocessor for use by software and hardware developers. Available Nov 12 1993 Motorola will release the following new document: PowerPC 603 RISC Microprocessor Technical Summary (MPC603/D). This new document provides an overview of the MPC603 PowerPC microprocessor and MPC603 implementation-specific features, such as power management. Available Oct 18 1993 All three will be available from Motorola's Literature Distribution Center. --- Got this in the mail today from Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. I'm sorry it's so commercial, but I suspect some of you will find it useful: "The IBM PowerPC Architecture: A New Family of RISC Processors IBM This book presents an overview of the current and forthcoming PowerPC processor implementations in the PowerPC family of RISC microprocessors from IBM and Motorola. The architecture design facilitates high-performance through parallel instruction execution and is scalable to take advantage of future technology gains. _The IBM PowerPC Architecture_ if the official detailed technical description of the IBM PowerPC architecture and its hardware conventions, making it an essential reference for designers of hardware and system software and application programmers developing products for the PowerPC family of RISC microprocessors. It is the first book of its kind available outside the Apple, IBM and Motorola PowerPC consortium. It is also a valuable tool for conducting in-depth evaluations of the IBM PowerPC architecture and RISC technologies. The PowerPC family includes the 601,603, 604, and 620 processors for high-performance personal computers, workstations, servers, mobile computers and supercomputers. _The IBM PowerPC Architecture_ includes the base instruction set, storage model and all related facilities available to application programmers, the Time Base as seen by the application programmers, and a full description of the system instructions. Contents PowerPC User Instruction Set Architecture - introduction, branch processor, fixed-point processor, floating-point processor; PowerPC Virtual Environment Architecture - storage model, effect of operand placement of performance, storage control instructions, time base; PowerPC Operating Environment Architecture - intro, branch processor, fixed-point processor, storage control , interrupts, timer facilities; appendices Dec 1993; approx 600 pages; cloth; ISBN 1-55860-316-6; $49.95 IBM Power and PowerPC: Architecture and Implementation Shlomo Weiss (Tel Aviv Univ) and James E Smith (Cray Research) Written from the perspective of developers and teachers of high performance computing, this book provides a wealth of information about IBM's important contributions to the development and evolution of RISC technology. The RS/6000 and the PowerPC 601 implementations serve as in-depth case studies for hardware designers and developers, software engineers, and performance analysts. Assuming only minimal hardware background, the authors describe basic concepts such as pipelining, caches, and superscalar processing, before proceeding to detailed discussions of the POWER and PowerPC architectures and their implementations. As a comprehensive overview of POWER and PowerPC computers, it is an in-depth reference for the practicing engineer. The presentation of alternative design approaches and tradeoffs taken in the design process, combined with comparisons to the DEC alpha processor make this an ideal introduction for technical managers and newcomers alike. Contents: Modern computer design concepts; POWER architecture; RS/6000 implementation; pipelines, branches, and interrupts, cache memories; PowerPC architecture; PowerPC 601 implementation; PowerPC: Support for multiprocessing; System organization; memory and input/output; PowerPC and alpha 21064: A Tale of Two RISCS. Nov 1993; approx 600 pages; cloth; ISBN 1-55860-279-8; $54.95" You can get these by calling (800) 745-7323 or FAX (415) 578-0672. *****************************Acknowledgments***************************** This FAQ is the creation of its editor, Schechter.email@example.com (Stuart Schechter), and the following contributors: yoshio@CS.UCLA.EDU (Yoshio Turner), firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com (Stewart Walker), Chris_Pruett@notes.seagate.com (Chris Pruett), firstname.lastname@example.org (David D. Kilzer), email@example.com (Darin S. Morley), firstname.lastname@example.org (David Bosso), email@example.com (Alan M. Mathiowetz), firstname.lastname@example.org (Stephan Anagnostaras), kuo@rintintin.Colorado.EDU (Andy Y.A. Kuo), elston@ACAVAX.LYNCHBURG.EDU (Zac Elston), email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org (Alex Lewin), White.email@example.com (Kevin L. White), and others. Sorry if I've left anyone out! -- ========================================================================== ==-- - ->Stuart | Stuart E. Schechter (Schechter.firstname.lastname@example.org)| ==============================| Editor - The Macintosh PowerPC FAQ | |"It is better to be a closet | Computer & Information Science Major | |claustrophobic than a flaming| OSU College of Engineering Honors Program| | pyromaniac." | ENG Rep - CIS Undergrad Studies Committee| ==========================================================================
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