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According to Prof. Donato the ancient perfumer's art consisted of three procedures: "enfleurage", soaking, and pressing.

"Enfleurage was used. . . to make ointments, which were obtained by spreading perfumed petals over a layer of animal fat. The petals were continually replaced until complete saturation. . . was achieved. Perfumed oil could also be extracted by soaking the aromatic in hot oils and filtering what remained."

". . . we collected the various ingredients involved in the manufacture of the perfumes: petals, rhizomes, and caulicles (Fig. 1) . . . then carefully mixed (the ingredients) with non-acidic vegetable oil (onphacium) and allowed to soak for a long time at medium temperature.
   We should like to make particular mention of the 'onphacium' and how it was possible to obtain it, since it was basic to all the extractions. It is the oil, . . . produced from unripe olives, more precisely olives harvested in August (Fig. 3)." - p.15

" . . . the olives. . . were allowed to soak for at least twenty-four hours (in the lab). . . .(the) first pressed batch. (of olives). . .will be ground. Fig. 6 shows the press we have and the paste obtained by grinding. Fig. 7 shows the 'onphacium.' The product we obtained in the laboratory is excellent. It is slightly greasy oil, which is very dark due to the abundance of mucilage, and is practically odorless and tasteless, apart from a faint herb-like odor. It had unexpected features, especially in its lack of fats. It had so little fat that when it is spread over the skin, rubbing it a little, it is easily absorbed. The next step was filtering, followed by blending."

Professor Donato also makes a number of observations concerning ancient perfumery. For one he identifies that,

"during the classical period sweeter compounds that remained fresh and refined were preferred. In addition, the perfumed substances could be ingested since the extractive element was vegetable oil. In ancient times they were added to wine and drunk."


 As a result of Professor Donato's research and work the following fragrances were created.

Rhodinum consisting of 'onphacium', rose blossom, crocus, cinnabar, calamus, honey, rush, sublimated salt, alkamet, and wine.

Myrtum Laurum
consisting of oil of Persia, i.e., marjoram, lily, fenugreek, myrrh, cassia, nard, rush and cinnamon, myrtle, and laurel.

Metopium consisting of bitter almonds, 'onphacium', cardamon, rush, calamus, honey, myrrh, balsam, "calbono crescina," and turpentine resin.

Regale Unguentum consisting of myrobalan, costus, ammonal, cinnamon, comacus, cardamon, lavender, myrrh, trifolium, cinnamon cassia, styrax, labdanum, balsam, calamus, rush, oenanthe, pimpinellifolia, laurel, casia, sericato, cyperus, rosewood, panace, saffron, henna, marjoram, lotus, honey, and wine.

Cyprinum consisting of cyperus, 'onphacium', cardamon, clamus, rose wood, and wormwood.

Telinum consisting of fresh oil, cyperus, calamus, melilotus, fenugreek, honey, maro, and marjoram.

Susinum, the most delicate of all, consisting of lily, balsam, honey, cinnamon, saffron, and myrrh.