Adams, Ramon F. The Language of the Railroader. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1977. Expressions used by railroaders and telegraphers.
Ahvenainen, Jorma. "The Far Eastern Telegraphs: The History of Telegraphic Communications between the Far East, Europe and America before the First World War." Suomalaisen Tiedeakatemian Toimituksia, Sarja-Ser. B, Nide-Tom 216 (1981). Building the world-wide network of undersea telegraph cables in the last quarter of the nineteenth century.
Ahvenainen, Jorma. "The History of the Caribbean Telegraphs before the First World War." Suomalainen Tiedeakatemian Toimituksia, nide 283 (1996). The history of the telegraph in the Caribbean before 1920.
Albion, Robert G. "The Communication Revolution." American Historical Review 37 (July 1932), 718-20. An early and prescient essay which noted the impact of communications on industrial development.
Anderson, Margo. "The History of Women and the History of Statistics." Journal of Women's History 4, no. 1 (spring 1992): 14-36. An analysis of the underrepresentation of women in the U. S. Census.
Andrews, J. Cutler. "The Southern Telegraph Company, 1861-1865: A Chapter in the History of Wartime Communications." The Journal of Southern History XXX (1964): 319-344. The use of the telegraph in the Confederacy during the Civil War.
Andrews, Melodie. " 'What The Girls Can Do': The Debate Over the Employment of Women in the Early American Telegraph Industry." Essays in Economic and Business History 8 (1990): 109-120. The early history of women in the telegraph industry and their letters to the Telegrapher.
Annals of Cleveland. Works Progress Administration in Ohio, 1938. Advertisements for telegraphic schools.
Baark, Erik. Lightning Wires: The Telegraph and China's Technological Modernization 1860-1890. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1997. Denmark's Great Northern Telegraph Company and the building of the Far Eastern undersea telegraph cable network.
Baker, Elizabeth Faulkner. Technology and Women's Work. New York: Columbia University Press, 1964. Women as telegraphers in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
Bartky, Ian R. "Running on Time." Railroad History 159 (autumn 1988): 18-38. Train dispatching and the telegraph.
Bektas, Yakup. "The Sultan's Messenger: Cultural Constructions of Ottoman Telegraphy, 1847-1880." Technology and Culture 41 (2000): 669-96. The telegraphic system in the Ottoman Empire and its cultural impact.
Berry, Ralph Edward. The Work of Juniors in the Telegraph Service. Berkeley: University of California Division of Vocational Education, April 1922. Job descriptions for telegraph industry workers.
Berthold, Victor Maximilian. History of the Telephone and Telegraph in Colombia, S.A., 1865-1921. New York: 1921. Development of the telegraph system in Colombia in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Berthold, Victor Maximilian. History of the Telephone and Telegraph in the Argentine Republic, 1857-1921. New York: 1921. Development of the telegraph system in Argentina in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Berthold, Victor Maximilian. History of the Telephone and Telegraph in Uruguay, 1886-1925. New York: 1925. Development of the telegraph system in Uruguay in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Blondheim, Menahem. News Over the Wires: The Telegraph and the Flow of Public Information in America, 1844-1897. Boston: Harvard University Press, 1994. The telegraph and the birth of the Associated Press.
Bose, Christine, Feldberg, Roslyn, and Sokoloff, Natalie, eds. Hidden Aspects of Women's Work. New York: Praeger, 1987. Analysis of gender issues and womens' work.
Bouvier, Jeanne. Histoire des Dames Employees dans les Postes, Telegraphes et Telephones de 1714 a 1929. Paris: Les Presses Universitaires de France, 1930. The history of the employment of women in the French post, telegraph, and telephone administration (In French).
Brady, Jasper Ewing. Tales of the Telegraph: The Story of a Telegrapher's Life and Adventures in Railroad, Commercial, and Military Work. New York: Doubleday & McClure, 1899. Tales and reminiscences from the life of a telegraph operator.
Brock, Gerald W. The Telecommunications Industry: The Dynamics of Market Structure. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1981. The development of the telecommunications industry and the role of Western Union.
Brooks, John. Telephone: The First Hundred Years. New York: Harper and Row, 1976. The development of the telephone industry.
Buckingham, Charles. "The Telegraph of To-day." Scribner's Magazine, July 1889, 3-22. The American telegraph industry in 1889, as described by Western Union's legal counsel.
Burman, Shirley. "Women and the American Railroad--Documentary Photography." Journal of the West, April 1994, 36-41. Women as railroad workers.
Butler, Elizabeth Beardsley. Women and the Trades: Pittsburgh 1907-8. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1984. Women as telegraphers and the strike of 1907.
Cammon, H. M. "Women's Work and Wages." Harper's Magazine, April 1869, 665-670. A discussion of women's wages from a working woman's viewpoint.
Carnegie, Andrew. Autobiography. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1920. Carnegie's rise from telegrapher to corporate magnate; a mention of the telegraphic work of his cousin, Maria Hogan.
Carter, Kate. The Story of Telegraphy. Salt Lake City: Daughters of Utah Pioneers, 1961. The story of the Mormon women telegraphers of the Deseret Telegraph in the nineteenth centuryWest.
Choudhury, Deep Kanta Lahiri. "'Beyond the Reach of Monkeys and Men': O'Shaughnessy and the Telegraph in India, circa 1830-1856." Indian Economic and Social History Review, vol. XXVII(3), July-Sept 2000, 331-360. The development of the telegraph system in India and the work of Dr. William O'Shaughnessy.
Choudhury, Deep Kanta Lahiri. "India's First Virtual Community and the Telegraph Strike of 1908." International Review of Social History, vol. 48, issue S11. 2003, 45-71. The telegraph strike of 1908 in India.
Choudhury, Deep Kanta Lahiri. Telegraphic Imperialism: Crisis and Panic in the Indian Empire, c. 1830. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan Transnational History Series, 2010. Development of the telegraphic network in India c. 1850 to 1920 and its relationship to social change.
Churchill, Lida A. My Girls. Boston, 1882. A novel depicting the lives of women operators in the 1880s.
Clarke, Thomas Curtis, et. al. The American Railway: Its Construction, Management, and Appliances. New York, 1897; reprint, New York: Arno Press, 1976. A description of the work of railroad workers, including telegraphers.
Coe, Lewis. The Telegraph: A History of Morse's Invention and Its Predecessors in the United States. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland and Co., 1993. A history of telegraphy and telegrapher's slang.
Commercial Telegraphers' Union of America Journal. The journal of the Commercial Telegraphers' Union, published from 1902 to 1968.
Conot, Robert. A Streak of Luck. New York: Seaview Books, 1979. The life of Thomas A. Edison.
Cranch, C. P. "An Evening with the Telegraph Wires." Atlantic Monthly, September 1858, 490-494. Early science fiction involving the telegraph.
"The Dangers of Wired Love." Electrical World, 13 February 1886, 68-69. The story of New York telegrapher Maggie McCutcheon.
Davies, Margery. Woman's Place Is at The Typewriter. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1982. Women as clerical workers in the nineteeth century.
Douglas, Paul H. Real Wages in the United States 1890-1926. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1930. Analysis of the wages of telegraph and telephone operators.
Downey, Gregory J. Telegraph Messenger Boys: Labor Technology, and Geography, 1850-1950. New York: Routledge, 2002. Analysis of the work of telegraph messengers and the impact of geography on the telegraph network.
DuBoff, Richard B. "Business Demand and the Development of the Telegraph in the United States 1846-1860." Business History Review 54 (1980), 459-79. The telegraph and its relationship to the development of industrial capitalism in the mid-nineteenth-century United States.
The Electric Telegraph: An Historical Anthology. ed. George Shiers. New York: Arno Press, 1977. Descriptions of early telegraphic apparatus.
"The First Woman Operator." Telegraph and Telephone Age, 1 October 1910, 659-60. Article about the telegraphic work of Helen Plummer Mills in Greenville, PA in 1850.
Fison, Roger. "Is Morse Telegraphy Doomed to Extinction?" Railroad Man's Magazine, May 1917, 60-77. The teletype and its impact on the work of Morse telegraphers.
Foner, Philip. Women and the American Labor Movement: From Colonial Times to the Eve of World War I. New York: The Free Press, 1979. Women's work in the nineteenth century.
Gabler, Edwin. The American Telegrapher: A Social History 1860-1900. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1988. A social history of telegraphers in the nineteenth century and the strike of 1883.
Garland, Charles. "Women as Telegraphists." Economic Journal, June 1901, 251-261. An analysis of women telegraphers in England and Europe.
Giuntini, Andrea, ed. Communication and Its Lines: Telegraphy in the 19th Century among economy, politics, and technology.. Prato, Italy: Instituto di studi storici postali, 2004. Telegraphy in the 19th century and its impact on the economy, politics, and technology, with focus on Europe.
Gouvernement General de L'Afrique Occidentale Francaise. Les Postes et Telegraphes en Afrique Occidentale. Corbeil, France: Ed. Crete, Imprimerie Typographique, 1907. The French colonial post and telegraphic administration in West Africa in 1907.
Grodinsky, Julius. Jay Gould: His Business Career 1867-1892. Philadephia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1957. Jay Gould's involvement with the railroad and telegraph industries.
Hagemann, Gro. "Feminism and the Sexual Division of Labour. Female Labour in the Norwegian Telegraph Service around the Turn of the Century." Scandinavian Journal of History 10, 1985, 143-154. Norwegian women telegraph operators, their demands for higher pay, and their connection with the Norwegian feminist movement around 1900.
Handbuch der Frauenarbeit in Oesterreich. Herausgegeben von der Kammer fuer Arbeiter und Angestellte in Wien. Wien: Carl Ueberreuter, 1930. Women telegraph operators in Austria in 1930.
Harlow, Alvin F. Old Wires and New Waves. New York: Appleton-Century Company, 1936. A history of telecommuncations in the U. S. up to 1936.
Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The House of the Seven Gables. New York: New American Library, 1961. Includes a discussion of the impact of telegraphy on mid-nineteenth-century consciousness.
Hewitt, Nancy A., and Lebsock, Suzanne, eds. Visible Women: New Essays on American Activism. Champaign, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1993. Includes Jacquelyn Dowd Hall's essay on telegrapher O. Delight Smith.
Hill, Richard, ed. The Sudan Memoirs of Carl Christian Giegler Pasha. London: Oxford University Press, 1984. Carl Christian Giegler's career as telegraph administrator in the Sudan in the late nineteenth century.
Hochfelder, David. The Telegraph in America, 1832-1920.. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012. Discusses the correlation between technological innovation and social change.
Holcombe, Lee. Victorian Ladies at Work: Middle-Class Working Women in England and Wales 1850-1914. Hamden, Connecticut: Archon Books, 1973. Women as telegraphers in Victorian England.
In 28 Minuten von London nach Kalkutta: Aufsaetze zur Telegraphiegeschichte aus der Sammlung Dr. Hans Pieper im Museum fuer Kommunikation. Bern. Bern, Switzerland: Chronos, 2000. History of telegraphy, with emphasis on Switzerland (In German).
Israel, Paul. From Machine Shop to Industrial Laboratory: Telegraphers and the Changing Context of American Invention, 1830-1920. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992. Telegraphic inventors and the telegraph industry.
James, Edward T., ed. The Papers of the Women's Trade Union League and its Principal Leaders. Woodbridge, Conn: Research Publications, Inc., 1981. Microfilm. The Women's Trade Union League and the telegrapher's strike of 1907.
James, Henry. In The Cage. Chicago and New York: Herbert S. Stone & Company, 1898. A novella about the life of a woman telegraph operator in England.
Jepsen, Thomas C. "'A Look into the Future': Women Railroad Telegraphers and Station Agents in Pennsylvania, 1855-1960." Pennsylvania History vol. 76 nr. 2 (Spring 2009), 141-163. Women operators and agents as railroad employees in Pennsylvania.
Jepsen, Thomas C. Ma Kiley: The Life of a Railroad Telegrapher. El Paso, TX: Texas Western Press, 1997. The life story of a Texas-born railroad telegrapher.
Jepsen, Thomas C. My Sisters Telegraphic: Women in the Telegraph Office, 1846-1950. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2000. A social history of women in the telegraph office in the U.S. and the rest of the world.
Jepsen, Thomas C. "The Telegraph Comes to Colorado: A New Technology and its Consequences." Essays and Monographs in Colorado History nr. 7, 1987, 1-25. The coming of the telegraph in the 1860s and its effect on the Colorado territory.
Jepsen, Thomas C. "Two 'Lightning Slingers' from South Carolina." South Carolina Historical Magazine, October 1993, 264-82. The telegraphic careers of Ambrose and Narciso Gonzales.
Jepsen, Thomas C. "Women Telegraphers in the Railroad Depot." Railroad History 173 (autumn 1995): 142-54. The work of female railroad operators.
Jepsen, Thomas C. "Women Telegraph Operators on the Western Frontier." Journal of the West, April 1996, 72-80. Women operators in the West.
John, Richard R. Network Nation: Inventing American Telecommunications. Cambridge, Mass., and London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2010. A comprehensive history of American telecommunications. Watch Richard John discuss Network Nation in a C-SPAN interview.
John, Richard R. "The Politics of Innovation." Daedalus, Vol. 127 Nr. 4 (Fall 1998), 187-214. The telegraph as part of the nineteenth-century communications system.
Johnson, John J. "Pioneer Telegraphy in Chile 1852-1876." Stanford University Publications, University Series, History Economics and Political Science Volume VI, Number 1 (1948). The development of the telegraph industry in Chile.
Jones, Alexander. Historical Sketch of the Electric Telegraph: Including its Rise and Progress in the United States. New York: G. P. Putnam, 1852. Early history of the telegraph in the United States.
Josserand, Peter. "Lap Orders." Railroad Magazine, September 1942, 89. Article on train orders.
Journal of the Telegraph. Published by Western Union from 1869 to 1914.
Karbelashvily, A. "Europe-India telegraph 'bridge' via the Caucasus." Telecommunications Journal (vol. 56-XI), 1989, 719-723. Construction of the Siemens telegraph line across central Asia in the late 1860s.
Kennan, George. Tent Life in Siberia. Salt Lake City: Peregrine Books, 1986. The building of the trans-Siberian telegraph line in the mid-1860s.
Kieve, Jeffrey. The Electric Telegraph: A Social and Economic History. Newton Abbot, Devon: David & Charles, 1973. Development of the telegraph industry in England.
Kiley, Ma, "The Bug and I." Parts 1-4. Railroad Magazine, April-July 1950. Autobiographical account of a female railroad telegrapher's life.
Klein, Maury. The Life and Legend of Jay Gould. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986. Jay Gould and his involvement with the railroad and telegraph industries.
Mabee, Carleton. American Leonardo: A Life of Samuel F. B. Morse. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1944. Biography of Samuel F. B. Morse.
Marvin, Carolyn. When Old Technologies Were New. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989. The introduction of electricity and its impact on construction of gender and consciousness.
McCarthy, Justin. "Along The Wires." Harper's New Monthly Magazine, February 1870, 416-421. A short story dealing with romance in the telegraph office.
McIsaac, Archibald M. The Order of Railroad Telegraphers: A Study in Trade Unionism and Collective Bargaining. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1933. History of the railroad telegrapher's union.
Mitchell, Minnie Swan. "The Lingo of Telegraph Operators." American Speech, April 1937, 154-55. Female telegrapher's discussion of the language used by telegraphers.
Moreau, Louise R. "The Feminine Touch in Telecommunications." Antique Wireless Association Review, vol. 4, 1989, 70-83. Early female telecommunications pioneers.
Müller, Simone M. “From Cabling the Atlantic to Wiring the World: A Review Essay on the 150th Anniversary of the Atlantic Telegraph Cable of 1866,” Technology and Culture, Vol. 57, Nr. 3 (July 2016), 507-526.
Nickles, David Paull. "Telegraph Diplomats: The United States' Relations with France in 1848 and 1870." Technology and Culture, Vol. 40 Nr. 1 (January 1999), 1-25. The impact of telegraphic communications on diplomatic correspondence between the U.S. and France.
Nickles, David Paull. Under the Wire: How the Telegraph Changed Diplomacy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2003. The impact of the telegraph on diplomacy.
Norwood, Stephen H. Labor's Flaming Youth: Telephone Operators and Worker Militancy, 1878-1923. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1990. Early telephone operators and their unions.
O'Connor, Richard. Johnstown: The Day the Dam Broke. New York: J. B. Lippincott, 1957. Telegrapher Hettie Ogle and the Johnstown flood of 1889.
"The Oldest Lady Telegrapher." Telegraph Age, 16 September 1897, 382. The telegraphic career of Elizabeth Cogley (1855-1900).
The Operator. Telegrapher's journal (1877-1893).
Otis, Laura C. Networking: Communicating with Bodies and Machines in the Nineteenth Century. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2001. Origins of the concept of networking in telegraphy and the human nervous system.
Penny, Virginia. The Employments of Women: A Cyclopaedia of Woman's Work. Boston: Walker, Wise, & Company, 1863. Descriptions of occupations for women, including telegraphy.
Perera, Tom. Perera's Telegraph Collector's Guide. Maynard, Massachusetts: Artifax Books, 1998. Photos and reference information on telegraphic equipment for the collector.
Phillips, Barnet. "The Thorsdale Telegraphs." Atlantic Monthly, October 1876, 400-417. Short story about romance in the telegraph office.
Plum, William R. The Military Telegraph During the Civil War in the United States. Chicago: Jansen, McClurg & Co., 1882. The Military Telegraph in the Civil War and the telegraphic work of Louisa Volker.
Pope, Franklin L. Modern Practice of the Electric Telegraph. New York: D. Van Nostrand, 1881. Comprehensive technical reference for telegraph equipment and practice.
Prescott, George B. History, Theory, and Practice of the Electric Telegraph. Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1860. Early discription of the American telegraph industry.
The Railroad Telegrapher. Journal of the Order of Railroad Telegraphers, published from 1887 to 1965.
Rayne, Martha L. What Can A Woman Do? or, Her Position in the Business and Literary World. Petersburgh, N. Y.: Eagle Publishing Company, 1893. Work for women, including telegraphy.
Reid, James D. The Telegraph in America: Its Founders, Promoters, and Noted Men. New York: Derby Brothers, 1879. History of the early telegraph industry in the U. S. including early women operators.
Rosenthal, Eric, ed. Encyclopedia of Southern Africa. London and New York: Frederick Warne & Co., 1973. History of the early telegraph lines in South Africa.
Rules and Instructions for the Information and Guidance of the Employees of the Western Union Telegraph Company. New York: Russell Brothers, 1870. The Western Union rule book.
Schofield, Josie. "Wooing by Wire." Telegrapher, 20 November 1875, 277-78; 27 November 1875, 283-84. A telegraphic romance, written by a woman operator.
Selden, Bernice. The Mill Girls. New York: Atheneum, 1983. Sarah G. Bagley and her telegraphic work in Lowell, Massachusetts, in 1846.
Shaffner, Taliaferro P. The Telegraph Manual: A Complete History and Description of the Semaphore, Electric, and Magnetic Telegraphs of Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, Ancient and Modern. New York: Pudney & Russell, 1859. Early manual of practical telegraphy.
Shanks, William F. G. "Women's Work and Wages." Harper's Magazine, September 1868, 546-553. Women's wages in 1868.
Shridharani, Krishnalal. Story of the Indian Telegraphs: A Century of Progress.. New Delhi: Government of India Press, 1953. History of the first century of the Indian telegraph system.
Silverman, Kenneth. Lightning Man: The Accursed Life of Samuel F. B. Morse.. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2003. Samuel Morse's difficult and multi-faceted career as artist and inventor.
Standage, Tom. The Victorian Internet.. London: Phoenix, 1998. The early telegraph system and its role as the "Victorian Internet."
"The Telegraph." Harper's Magazine, August 1873, 332-360. Description of the American telegraph industry in 1873.
Telegraph Age (Telegraph and Telephone Age after 1909). Telegrapher's journal, published from 1893 to 1950.
Telegraph World. Journal of the Association of Western Union Employees, published from 1919 to 1940.
The Telegrapher Telegrapher's journal, published from 1864 to 1877.
Thayer, Ella Cheever. Wired Love. New York: W. J. Johnston, 1880. A novel about Nattie Rogers, a country telegrapher who moves to the city.
Thompson, Robert L. Wiring A Continent: The History of the Telegraph Industry in the United States 1832-1866. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1947. The early history of the telegraph industry in the U. S.
Tillotson, Shirley. "The Operators Along the Coast: A Case Study of the Link Between Gender, Skilled Labour and Social Power, 1900-1930." Acadiensis 20 (1), 1990, 72-88. Canadian women operators in the Maritime provinces.
Tillotson, Shirley. "'We may all soon be 'first-class men'': Gender and skill in Canada's early twentieth century urban telegraph industry." Labour/Le Travail 27, Spring 1991, 97-125. Women operators in Canada in the early twentieth century.
Towers, Walter Kellogg. From Beacon Fire to Radio: The Story of Long-distance Communication. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1924. A history of telecommunications.
Ulriksson, Vidkunn. The Telegraphers: Their Craft and Their Unions. Washington, DC: Public Affairs Press, 1953. A history of the telegrapher's unions and strikes.
Western Union News. Journal of the Western Union Telegraph Company.
Western Union Telegraph Company Collection, 1848-1963. Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. Archives of the Western Union Telegraph Company.
Western Union Telegraph Company Rules, Regulations, and Instructions. Cleveland: Sanford & Hayward, 1866. Rule book for Western Union telegraph operators.
Withuhn, William L., ed. Rails Across America: A History of Railroads in North America. New York: Smithmark Publishers, 1993. A history of the railroads in the U. S.
Wolff, Michael F. "The Marriage That Almost Was." IEEE Spectrum, vol. 13 nr. 2 (February 1976), 40-51. Western Union's attempt to dominate the early telephone industry.
"Women as Telegraph Operators." Electrical World, June 26, 1886, 296. Description of women operators at desolate railroad stations in the West.
Wright, Carroll D. The Working Girls of Boston. Boston: Wright and Potter, 1889. Statistics on working women in Boston, including telegraphers.
Wright, Helena. "Sarah G. Bagley: A Biographical Note." Labor History 20 no. 3 (summer 1979), 398-413. Sarah G. Bagley's life and work, including her telegraphic work.
Zhou, Yongming. Historicizing Online Politics: Telegraphy, The Internet, and Political Participation in China. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 2006. Historical perspective on the development of the telegraph system in China.