II. History of Modern Research in PK and RV.

- Upton Sinclair's “Mental Radio” in 30's. A wonderful description of a husband’s observations of his wife’s unusual psychic abilities. Contains over 100 examples of picture drawing experiments where he would try to send a mental image to his wife and she would draw the results. Full of other anecdotes involving precognition, finding lost items, etc.

- Rhine working with card reading and manipulating dice at Duke University and later F.R.N.M. Developed Zener cards as clear symbols for card reading experiments. Some interesting results focused on predictive markers that might be of use in identifying people who might have psychic episodes. Briggs-Myers ENFP types seem to be more partial to ESP than others. Not surprisingly a prior belief in psychic phenomena or prior psychic activity is also a big predictor. This implies that if you have ever had a psychic experience, you are much more likely to in the future.

- Start of Ganzfeld research at various institutions: Edinburgh, Duke, Honorton at the Maimonodes Sleep disorder lab. Used for card reading and RV experimentation. Ganzfeld is isolating subject in quiet room, no distractions, low lights, to see what they pick up through all senses.

- Puthoff & Targ researched RV at SRI during 70's under contract to NASA and possibly Navy. Pat Price, Hella Hammid, and Ingo Swann were top RV'ers for them. They did hundreds of experiments involving the RV subject tracking the wanderings of another researcher, drawing the roving researcher’s surroundings at previously decided times. Subjects did best when they just presented visual information, and did not try to analyze what they saw. Upton Sinclair found the same thing, and he and Puthoff & Targ spend some time analyzing the kinds of mis-interpretations that can take place in the subjects mind. Puthoff & Targ did many demonstrations for government visitors of one kind or another, eventually having many of these skeptical visitors do the viewing themselves!

- There have been several popular books and many reports of parapsychological research in the Soviet Union. Much Soviet research has centered a model involving subtle fields surrounding living creatures, and their efforts to detect changes in, read or otherwise influence these fields. Dowsing, sensitivity to electromagnetic fields, detecting the presence of other people nearby, and possibly affecting the health of living organisms have all been subjects of research in keeping with this field-based model of enhanced perception.